NMR Spectroscopy

What is NMR Spectroscopy?

NMR Spectroscopy is abbreviated as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. It is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei. The NMR spectroscopy determines the physical and chemical properties of atoms or molecules.

NMR Spectroscopy

NMR Spectroscopy

It relies on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and provides detailed information about the structure, dynamics, reaction state, and chemical environment of molecules.

NMR Spectroscopy Uses

NMR spectroscopy is a Spectroscopy technique used by chemists and biochemists to investigate the properties of organic molecules, although it is applicable to any kind of sample that contains nuclei possessing spin. For example, the NMR can quantitatively analyze mixtures containing known compounds. NMR can either be used to match against spectral libraries or to infer the basic structure directly for unknown compounds.

Once the basic structure is known, NMR can be used to determine molecular conformation in solutions as well as in studying physical properties at the molecular level such as conformational exchange, phase changes, solubility, and diffusion.

NMR Spectroscopy Techniques

  • Resonant frequency:

    It refers to the energy of the absorption, and the intensity of the signal that is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. NMR active nuclei absorb electromagnetic radiation at a frequency characteristic of the isotope when placed in a magnetic field.

  • Acquisition of spectra:

    Upon excitation of the sample with radio frequency pulse, a nuclear magnetic resonance response is obtained. It is a very weak signal and requires sensitive radio receivers to pick up.

  • Chemical shift:

    A spinning charge generates a magnetic field that results in a magnetic moment proportional to the spin. In the presence of an external magnetic field, two spin states exist; one spin up and one spin down, where one aligns with the magnetic field and the other opposes it.

Practise This Question

A chemical reaction XY is said to be in equilibrium when -