Solution - Properties of Solution

What is a Solution?

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components in which the particle size is smaller than 1 nm.

Common examples of solutions are sugar in water and salt in water solutions, soda water, etc.  In a solution, all the components appear as a single phase. There is particle homogeneity i.e. particles are evenly distributed. This is why a whole bottle of soft drink has the same taste throughout.

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Characteristics of Solution

Solutions have two components, one is solvent and the other is solute.

1. What is a Solvent?

The component that dissolves the other component is called the solvent.

2. What is Solute?

The component(s) that is/are dissolved in the solvent is/are called solute(s).

Generally solvent is present in major proportion compared to the solute. The amount of solute is lesser than the solvent. The solute and solvent can be in any state of matter i.e. solid, liquid and gas.

Solutions that are in the liquid state consist of a solid, liquid or gas dissolved in a liquid solvent. Alloys and air are examples of solid and gaseous solutions respectively.

3. Solution Examples

Following examples illustrate solvent and solute in some solutions.

  • Air is a homogeneous mixture of gases. Here both the solvent and the solute are gases.
  • Sugar syrup is a solution where sugar is dissolved in water using heat. Here, water is the solvent and sugar is the solute.
  • Tincture of iodine, a mixture of iodine in alcohol. Iodine is the solute whereas alcohol is the solvent.
Solution

Solution in Chemistry

Types of Solution

Liquid solutions, such as sugar in water, are the most common kind, but there are also solutions that are gases or solids. Any state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) can act both as a solute or as a solvent during the formation of a solution. Therefore depending upon the physical states of solute and solvent, we can classify in nine different types of solutions.

S.No Types of Solution Solute Solvent Examples
1 Solid-solid solid solid Alloys like brass, bronze etc.
2 Solid-liquid solid liquid The solution of sugar, salt etc in water.
3 Solid-gas solid gas Sublimation of substances like iodine, camphor etc into the air.
4 Liquid-solid liquid solid Hydrated salts, mercury in amalgamated zinc etc.
5 Liquid-liquid liquid liquid Alcohol in water, benzene in toluene
6 Liquid-gas liquid gas Aerosol, water vapour in the air.
7 Gas-solid gas solid Hydrogen absorbed in palladium
8 Gas-liquid gas liquid Aerated drinks
9 Gas-gas gas gas A mixture of gases etc

Properties of Solution

Different properties of solutions are as follows:

  • It is a homogeneous mixture.
  • Its particles are too tiny and have a diameter less than 1 nm.
  • The particles are not visible to naked eyes.
  • Particles don’t scatter a beam of light passing through it and hence the path of the light is not visible.
  • Solutes are inseparable from the mixture and do not sediment. A solution is stable.
  • The components of a mixture cannot be separated using filtration.

What is a Mixture?

Mixtures are substances that consist of two or more types of matter. Air, soil, blood, etc. are different examples of mixtures. Based on the nature of the components and their distribution, mixtures are classified as homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

  • A mixture that has its components uniformly distributed is known as a homogeneous mixture.
  • While if the distribution is non-uniform, the mixture is called a heterogeneous mixture.

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. Let’s learn more about the solutions, its properties, how to find a concentration of solutions.

The Concentration of a Solution

The amount of solute in a given solution is called the concentration of a solution. The proportion of solute and solvent in solutions are not even. Depending upon the proportion of solute, a solution can be:

  • Diluted
  • Concentrated
  • Saturated

\( The\ concentration\ of\ solution = \frac{Amount\ of\ solute}{Amount\ of\ solution}\)

Or

\( The\ concentration\ of\ solution = \frac{Amount\ of\ solute}{Amount\ of\ solvent}\)

FAQs

1. What is a normal solution?
Ans: A typical solution contains one solution equivalent per liter of solution. For acid-base reactions, the amount of a reactant that can generate or consume a mole of hydrogen ions is equal.

2. What are the types of solutions?
Ans: Solution can exist in liquid, gaseous or solid. In fact, a combination of liquids, gases, and solids can be a solution. In some cases, the solution, like seawater, consists of a large number of different types of solutes, such as salts, oxygen, and organic molecules.

3. What is the solution and type of solution?
Ans: The unsaturated solution is a solution where a solvent at a given temperature can dissolve any more solvent. A saturated solution can be characterized as a solution where at a given temperature a solvent is no longer able to dissolve a solvent.

4. What are 3 properties of a solution?
Ans: Colligative properties are features a solution has that depend on the number of solute particles, not identity. For liquids, there is lower vapor pressure, higher boiling point, lower freezing point, and higher osmotic pressure.

5. What is the meaning of a solution in chemistry?
Ans: A solution in chemistry is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. A liquid is a soluble material in another substance, known as a solvent, in such a mixture.

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