What is a Mixture?
Mixtures are substances that consist of two or more types of matter. Air, soil, blood, etc. are different examples of mixtures. Based on the nature of the components and their distribution, mixtures are classified as homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
- A mixture that has its components uniformly distributed is known as a homogeneous mixture.
- While if the distribution is non-uniform, the mixture is called as a heterogeneous mixture.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. Let’s learn more about the solutions, its properties, how to find a concentration of solutions.
What is a Solution?
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components in which the particle size is smaller than 1 nm. Common examples of solutions are sugar in water and salt in water solutions, soda water, etc. In a solution, all the components appear as a single phase. There is particle homogeneity i.e. particles are evenly distributed. This is why a whole bottle of soft drink has the same taste throughout.
Solutions have two components, one is solvent and the other is solute.
The component that dissolves the other component is called the solvent.
The component(s) that is/are dissolved in the solvent is/are called solute(s).
Generally solvent is present in major proportion compared to solute. The amount of solute is lesser than the solvent. The solute and solvent can be in any state of matter i.e. solid, liquid and gas.
Solutions that are in the liquid state consist of a solid, liquid or a gas dissolved in a liquid solvent. Alloys and air are examples of solid and gaseous solutions respectively.
Following examples illustrate solvent and solute in some solutions.
- Air is a homogeneous mixture of gases. Here both the solvent and the solute are gases.
- Sugar syrup is a solution where sugar is dissolved in water using heat. Here, water is the solvent and sugar is the solute.
- Tincture of iodine, a mixture of iodine in alcohol. Iodine is the solute whereas alcohol is the solvent.
Different properties of solutions are as follows:
- It is a homogeneous mixture.
- Its particles are too tiny and have a diameter less than 1 nm.
- The particles are not visible to naked eyes.
- Particles don’t scatter a beam of light passing through it and hence the path of the light is not visible.
- Solutes are inseparable from the mixture and do not sediment. A solution is stable.
- The components of a mixture cannot be separated using filtration.
Concentration of a Solution:
The amount of solute in a given solution is called the concentration of a solution. The proportion of solute and solvent in solutions are not even. Depending upon the proportion of solute, a solution can be:
Concentration of solution = Amount of solute/Amount of solution
Concentration of solution = Amount of solute/Amount of solvent
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