What is Titration?



Titration, also identified as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is made use of to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte. Since volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant or titrator is prepared as a standard solution. A known concentration and volume of titrant react with a solution of analyte to determine concentration. The volume of titrant that reacted is called titration volume.

A typical titration experiment begins with a beaker or Erlenmeyer flask comprising of a very precise volume of the analyte and a minor amount of indicator (such as phenolphthalein) positioned underneath a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe holding the titrant. Small volumes of the titrant are then dripped into the analyte and indicator up until the indicator alters the color in reaction to the titrant saturation threshold, conveying arrival at the endpoint of the titration. A single drop or less than a single drop of the titrant can cause the difference between temporary and a permanent change in the indicator, depending on the endpoint desired. When the endpoint of the reaction is touched, the volume of reactant consumed is calculated and used to compute the concentration of analyte by


where Ca is the concentration of the analyte, usually in molarity; Ct is the concentration of the titrant, usually in molarity; Vt is the volume of the titrant used, usually in liters; M is the mole ratio of the reactant and analyte from the balanced chemical equation; and Va is the used analyte’s volume, usually in liters.

Types of titration

  • Acid–base 
  • Redox 
  • Gas phase 
  • Complexometric
  • Zeta potential
  • Assay

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