Agricultural Development

Agriculture development implies giving assistance to farmers or crop producers by providing them various agricultural support. Providing security, helping in the research area, employing advanced techniques, checking pests, and facilitating diversity, they all fall under the category of agriculture development.

In the colonial dominion, there was neither equity nor growth in the agricultural division. The strategy and rule makers of independent India addressed these problems through land reforms and advancing the use of ‘high yielding variety’ (HYV) seeds that guided a revolution in Indian agriculture.

Land Reforms in India

Land reform means equity in agriculture that also means the shift in the ownership of landholdings. Land reform normally relates to the redistribution of land from the rich to the poor. It involves a control of operation, ownership, sales, leasing, and inheritance of land.

In a country like India with vast deficiency and irregular arrangements of land with a huge mass of the rural people below the poverty line, there are captivating economic and political disputes for land reforms.

In recent years, the theory of land reforms has expanded in the identification of the strategic role of land and agricultural development. Therefore, land reforms have become similar to agrarian change or rapid development of the agrarian structure.

This structure includes the land tenure system, farm organisation, the pattern of cultivation, the scale of the farm operation, the terms of tenancy, and the system of rural credit, marketing, and education. It also deals with advanced technology.

Also, read: Indian Industries during British rule

Green Revolution in India

At the time of independence, 75% of India’s population was dependent on agriculture. Agriculture production was very less because of the use of old technology.

The slack in agriculture was destroyed by the green revolution. This means there was a large improvement in the production of agricultural grains by the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, notably for wheat and rice.

The proper growth of these seeds needed the right amounts of manure and pesticide as well as the constant supply of water. All these utilisations had to be in correct proportions.

However, the farmers who started and continued with HYV seeds needed assured irrigation facilities along with the financial resources to buy manure and pesticides. The adoption of HYV seeds was limited to states like Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

Later from the mid-1970s to mid-1980s, the green revolution was shifted to a large number of states. This revolution made India a self-sufficient country in food grains.

Market Surplus

An increase in agricultural production is necessary but it is not sufficient. If a substantial portion of increase in agriculture is used by the farmers themselves rather than selling in the market, then the greater production will not make an exception to the economy as a whole.

On the other hand, if large quantities of agricultural products are sold in the market by the farmers, the greater product will make a difference to the market. The part of the agricultural product sold in the market by the farmers is known as marketed surplus.


Q.1 Explain the need and type of land reforms implemented in agriculture.


Need of land reforms · During colonial rule, there was neither growth nor equity in the agricultural sector.

· At the time of independence, about 75% of the country’s population was dependent on agriculture.

· Land Reforms aimed at removing all the obstacles in the agricultural development arising due to a landholding pattern, agricultural tenancy, and more.

Types of land reforms · Land reforms refer to the reforms that are related to the ownership of land, land revenue, rules and regulations, and more.
Abolition of intermediaries


· Intermediaries between the government and actual tillers of the soil popularly known as zamindars, have been abolished.

· The abolition of the intermediaries brought two crore tenants into direct contact with the government.

Regulation of rent · To put an end to excessive or illegal rent, the rents have been fixed.

· It should not be more than one-third of the value of the crop.

Security of tenure


· Most of the states have passed legislation to provide security to tenant cultivation.

· The tenants cannot be removed from the land, except under law.

· In case the landowner needs the land for self-cultivation, the tenant also must be given a prescribed minimum area for cultivation.

Consolidation of holdings · Consolidation of holdings implies the holdings of a farmer’s land at one place, rather than scatter in pieces at several places.

· Despite all the efforts, only about 30% of the cultivated area could be consolidated in India, mostly in the states of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.

Ceiling of land holdings · With a view to promote equality in the distribution of land, the ceiling has been imposed on the holding size.

· It refers to the maximum and minimum limits to the size of holding a land that one is permitted to hold.

· The surplus land, i.e., over and above the ceiling limit has been redistributed by the government to small or landless labourers.

Cooperative farming


· Under this scheme, all the landowners in the village form a cooperative society for cultivation of land in the village.

· It is encouraged to enhance the bargaining power of the smallholders in the competitive marketing structure.


Q.2 What is cooperative farming?

Cooperative farming is a scheme under which the landowners of the village form a cooperative society for the cultivation of land in the village.


Q.3 How much part of the land was consolidated?

Only 30% of the cultivated land could be consolidated.



Multiple choice questions
Q.1 _____________ refers to the maximum and minimum limits to the size of a holding that one is permitted to hold.
a. Ceiling on land holdings

b. Consolidation of holdings

c. Security of tenured

d. All of the above

Q.2 What do the land reforms aim at?
a. Rent regulation

b. Land holding pattern

c. Abolition of intermediaries

d. All of the above

Q.3 ___________ aim at removing all the obstacles in agricultural development that arises due to the landholding pattern, agricultural tenancy, and more.
a. Tax reforms

b. Trade reforms

c. Land reforms

d. None of the above

Q.4 A _____________ was imposed to promote equality in distribution of land.
a. Taxes

b. Subsidies

c. Ceiling of land holdings

d. None of the above


Answer key
1 – a, 2 – d, 3 – c, 4 – c

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