On 21 May 2021, Italy, the Presidency of G20, in partnership with the European Union, organised the Global Health Summit 2021 in Rome.
The Summit was an opportunity for G20 and invited leaders, heads of international and regional organisations, and representatives of global health bodies, to share lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
As a result of this Summit, the Rome Declaration was adopted. In this article, we shall discuss at length the key aspects of the Global Health Summit 2021 and the objectives of the Rome Declaration.
UPSC aspirants can also get the List of Important Summits held in 2020-21 along with their themes, objectives and other important aspects at the linked article.
All government and IAS Exam aspirants can refer to the links given below:
|World Health Assembly (WHA)||World Health Organization WHO|
|National Digital Health Mission (NDHM)||List of G20 Summits|
|Pandemic & Public Health System: RSTV – Big Picture||United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)|
About Global Health Mission 2021
- The Summit was hosted by Italy and co-hosted by the European Union on May 21, 2021, at Villa Pamphilj in Rome
- Leaders of the G20 committed to a series of actions to accelerate the end of the COVID-19 crisis everywhere and better prepare for future pandemics
- The focus was on the third Sustainable Development Goal of ‘Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all at all stages’
- All G20 members also acknowledged the need to address the funding gap of the ACT-Accelerator and agreed to extend its mandate to the end of 2022
- Stress was on equitable access to vaccines to low and middle-income countries
- The leaders also discussed the need for a piece of early warning information, surveillance and trigger systems to be well prepared for any forth-coming virus and its mutants
- As an outcome of the Summit, the decision for adopting the Rome Declaration was taken
|What is G20?
The G20 is the international forum that brings together the world’s major economies. Its members account for more than 80% of world GDP, 75% of global trade and 60% of the population of the planet.
Each year, the Presidency invites guest countries, which take full part in the G20 exercise. Several international and regional organizations also participate, granting the forum an even broader representation.
Also, read about Group of 7 (G7), a group of the seven most advanced economies as per the International Monetary Fund (IMF) at the linked article. The seven countries are Canada, the USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan and Italy.
What is the Rome Declaration?
The Rome Declaration comprises 16 mutually agreed principles that aim at guiding joint action to prevent future health crises and to build a safer, fairer and more equitable and sustainable world. Discussed below are the 16 principles:
- Support and enhance the existing multilateral health architecture for preparedness, prevention, detection and response
- Work towards monitoring and implementation of the multi-sectoral, evidence-based One Health approach to address risks emerging from the human-animal-environment interface
- Foster all-of-society and health-in-all policies approaches
- Promote the multilateral trading system, noting the central role of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and the importance of open, resilient, diversified, secure, efficient and reliable global supply chains across the whole value chain related to health emergencies
- Enable equitable, affordable, timely, global access to high-quality, safe and effective health systems
- Support low and middle-income countries to build expertise, and develop local and regional manufacturing capacities
- Focus on data sharing, capacity building, licensing agreements, and voluntary technology and know-how transfers on mutually agreed terms
- Enhance support for existing preparedness and prevention structures, ensuring no one is left behind
- Invest in the worldwide health and care workforce
- Invest in adequate resourcing, training, and staffing of diagnostic public and animal health laboratories
- Invest in further developing, enhancing and improving inter-operable early warning information, surveillance, and trigger systems
- Invest in domestic, international and multilateral cooperation in research, development, and innovation
- Increase the effectiveness of preparedness and response measures by supporting and promoting meaningful and inclusive dialogue
- Seek to ensure the effectiveness of such financing mechanisms
- Coordinate pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures and emergency response in the context of a sustainable and equitable recovery
- Address the need for enhanced, streamlined, sustainable and predictable mechanisms to finance long-term pandemic preparedness, prevention, detection and response, as well as surge capacity
Also, visit the linked article and read about the UN75 Declaration, an initiative launched in 2020 which calls for Multilateralism to Achieve an Equal, Resilient World. It marks the 75 years of the United Nations Organisation and the growing inequality, poverty, terrorism, hunger, climate changes and pandemics that were not desirable 75 years ago.
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