National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme: Notes for UPSC Exam

The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) is an umbrella programme for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases and is subsumed under the National Health Mission.  Directorate of NVBDCP is the central nodal agency for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases i.e. Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya in India. It is one of the Technical Departments of the Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India.

NVBDCP – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

To know about the various Government Schemes in India, visit the linked article

Programmes under NVBDCP 

Various programmes under NVBDCP ar

1.Kala Azar control programme: Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic disease caused by an intracellular protozoan (Leishmania species) and transmitted to man by the bite of female phlebotomus sand fly. Currently, it is the main problem in Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and some parts of Uttar Pradesh.

  • It is a centrally sponsored programme in endemic states in 1990-91. A tripartite MoU has been signed between India, Bangladesh and Nepal for achieving Kala Azar from the South East Asia Region.
  • All programmes are being implemented by the NVBDCP.
  • It has a target of reducing the annual incidence of Kala Azar to less than one per 10000 population at the block PHC level.

2. National Filaria Control Programme: Bancroftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, which is transmitted to    man by the bites of infected mosquitoes – Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Aedes. Lymphatic filaria is prevalent in 18 states and union territories. Bancroftian filariasis is widely distributed while brugian filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is restricted to 6 states – UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Gujarat.

  • The National Filaria Control Programme was launched in 1955. It has the objective of controlling Lymphatic Filariasis in un-surveyed areas and urban areas through anti-parasitic and anti larval measures.
  • The National Health Policy 2017 envisages the elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. 2020 was the target year for Global elimination of the disease.

3. Japanese Encephalitis Control Programme: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic disease and caused by an arbovirus, group B (Flavivirus) and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. This disease has been reported from 26 states and UTs since 1978, only 15 states are reporting JE regularly.

  • A task force is constituted by the Government of India for the control of Japanese Encephalitis. The Directorate of NVBDCP monitors the situation of Japanese Encephalitis in the country.
  • Objective of the programme is the early diagnosis of the disease and sincere case management.

4. Dengue Control: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic disease and caused by an arbovirus, group B (Flavivirus) and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. This disease has been reported from 26 states and UTs since 1978, only 15 states are reporting JE regularly.

  • Objective of the programme is surveillance and Dengue outbreak control, vector control through community participation especially in the pre-monsoon period as the transmission is correlated to monsoon and capacity building to ensure timely treatment.

In addition to these programmes, there is also the National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Elimination of Malaria. Malaria is one of the serious public health problems in India. At the time of independence, malaria was contributing to 75 million cases with 0.8 million deaths every year. The plan has set its goal to totally eliminate Malaria by 2027 three years ahead of 2024 which is the global deadline for elimination of Malaria. 

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