# Comprehensive News Analysis - 26 March 2017

POLITY

##### C. GS3 Related:

ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE AND ECOLOGY

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

##### H. Archives

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### Useful News Articles for UPSC Current Affairs

A. GS1 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

B. GS2 Related
Category: POLITY

1. ‘South Asian citizens see larger role for religious leaders’

What’s in news?

• State of Democracy in South Asia’-Repot highlights- Survey has been brought out under the aegis of the Global Barometer Survey
• A expansive number of individuals in South Asian nations support a part for religious pioneers as against legislators in real basic leadership in their nation all nations in the district have justly chosen governments.
• In Pakistan the greater part the respondents supported the contribution of religious pioneers set up of legislators in essential basic leadership, more than 33% stood firm in Sri Lanka, and around one-fourth embraced this position in Nepal, Bangladesh and India.
• The bolster for a part for religious pioneers is most noteworthy among the Muslims crosswise over nations of the locale
• Rising polarization: The report stated, “Support for religious pioneers reflects is less a vote of trust in their certifications however an unmistakable dissatisfaction with the political class. The expanded religious polarization that social orders in nations of South Asia were seeing in the current past might have likewise added to this oblivious affirmation of confidence in the limits of religious pioneers.”
• In India, the Army kept on being the most put stock in organization (57% of respondents), trailed by legal (36%). In India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, more individuals tended to doubt the police. In India, 23% of respondents have low trust while 20% of them have no trust. A higher level of trust in Army and legal could owe to the protected path in which they work. Subjects watch their working from a separation, frequently the ‘non-straightforward’ nature of their working.
• The emergency of believability of political gatherings in South Asia proceeds with More than half of the respondents in the area had no trust or low trust in political gatherings and this saw an expansion since the first round of the review in 2005 (SDSA Report I). In India just 10 % of respondents have high trust in political gatherings, 27% have medium trust, 26% have low trust, 24% of respondents have no trust and 13% have no supposition at all.
While 28% of respondents have no trust in Nepal, 26% in Sri Lanka, 18% in Bangladesh, 17% in Pakistan.
In three nations of the locale — Pakistan, Bangladesh and India — religious minorities had a tendency to have more prominent confidence in the legal when contrasted with the religious larger part group.
##### C. GS3 Related

Category: ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE AND ECOLOGY

1. Egyptian vulture finds its nest back in Delhi

What’s in news?

• Reappearance of the Egyptian vulture – which had vanished from the city.
• The vulture is a valuable scrounger and assumes a key part in the earth as biological community specialist organization as it encourages on carcass (rotting tissue of dead creatures) and keeps the common habitat clean and controls spreading viral infections from rotting remains.
• Overall vulture populace has quickly declined amid the most recent three decades since mid-nineties and fast populace decrease recorded in India in the vicinity of 2000 and 2007.
• Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), one among nine vulture animal varieties accessible in Indian sub-landmass is a vast range circulated animal types in Europe, Africa and Asia .
• Egyptian Vulture populace has been quickly declined in India because of confronting a few noteworthy dangers as unsettling influence, harming, electric shock, shortage of nourishment, natural surroundings misfortune yet to a great extent because of lethal impact of veterinary medication i.e. Diclofenac through domesticated animals corpses.
• Due to greatly quick populace decrease in India this species has been enrolled as Endangered (EN) vulture species in the IUCN Red- IUCN Red-list of Threatened Species in 2012.
• Steps taken to enhance Vultures populace:
a. Continuous mindfulness and exertion by BNHS for vulture preservation, Drug Controller General (India), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Dept of Animal Husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture.
b. Govt of India has prohibited Diclofenac on veterinary use in the year 2006 and additionally Gazette Notification of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India restricted the offer of Diclofenac in multi-measurements vials in 2015.

Category: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. Oldest fossils hold clue to origin of life

• Epifluorescence imaging of present day vent tests has demonstrated that round and hollow throws made out of iron oxyhydroxide are framed by bacterial cells and are evidently of organic source (biogenic)- shows that life started in aqueous vents surprisingly on this planet.
• A new review in Nature finds the starting point of life no less than 3,770 million and perhaps 4,290 million years prior in ferruginous(containing iron oxides or rust) sedimentary rocks, translated as ocean bottom aqueous vent-related encourages from the Nuvvuagittuq supracrustal belt of Eastern Canada.
• Study uncovered – Life on Earth may have begun sooner than thought and could have done as such in aqueous vents on the sea floor.

2. A brewing debate on evolution theory picks up in India

• What Classical theorist thought of?

The phenomenon of niche construction in evolutionary biology has been mooted to be highly important but neglected in evolutionary biology theory. Not just that, it has been termed a concept at par with natural selection.

• Guiding light:

Five Indian evolutionary biologists connected to Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit of JNCASR, Bengaluru, have set out to show that this is not so.

Apart from citing instances of the concept’s use in earlier papers, they also argue that incorporating the phenomenon does not involve a major reworking of Standard Evolutionary Theory (SET).

• The Debate:

Over the last two decades, niche construction – the phenomenon by which evolving organisms modify their environment, which in turn increases or decreases their own survival rate – has become much talked about in the literature. Proponents of this theory have argued that it has been neglected in the Standard Evolutionary Theory, which therefore needs a major overhauling. This has been debunked in the paper by the authors.

• A new Domain

The foundational debates within evolutionary biology for the past 15 years have been dominated by scientists from North America and Western Europe.

One of the contentions of the authors is that contrary to the claims that Niche Construction has been neglected in the Standard Evolutionary Theory, they show in the paper that it has been considered by many authors to explain phenomena, even before the term “niche construction” was coined.

Examples:

1. Experimental study done by Borash and others in 1998: The experiment involved breeding larvae of fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, in an environment where food was reduced and presence of nitrogenous waste was increased. It was observed that even within one generation the larvae that formed early became heavy feeders and the late developers grew to become waste tolerant. Thus, within one generation, they were able to observe the effect of environment that was altered by the organism (the heavy feeders depleting the environment of food for the late developers). They found that it introduced the above polymorphism – separation into heavy feeders and waste tolerant types.
2. Proponents of niche construction use the following examples often: The use of lactose to feed adult humans – which is believed to have evolved along with cattle husbandry – and the high incidence of sickle cell anaemia in populations where there is a prevalence of malaria, due to yam cultivation

The writers expose the cases by referring to references of the above cases as of now having been utilized inside the traditional hypothesis itself.

What’s in news?

• Indian researchers have found a new target that can potentially be used for developing new antibiotics that will be effective against many bacteria.
• The new target is made of two proteins(GroEL-PrkC complex), which form a complex that is responsible for the formation of biofilm, that perform very important functions and are critical for bacterial ability to successfully infect humans.
• Till now, all attention has been on developing antibiotics that target disease-causing bacteria and not the biofilm itself.

What is a Biofilm?

• Biofilm as a biological shield: Bacteria form biofilms, a kind of matrix, during infection in plants and animals. The biofilm shields the bacteria from antibiotics and helps bacteria survive harsh conditions such as extreme temperature or stress.

How bacterial infection can be prevented?

• Target molecular signaling event that leads to synthesis of biofilms in bacteria.

How biofilms are formed?

• Bacteria have sensors on the surface which senses some signal and helps in biofilm formation.
• PrkC a protein senses some signal and transmits it from outside to inside the cell. This signal goes to other proteins like GroEL. PrkC adds phosphate group (phosphorylate) to different proteins. The mystery to biofilm formation lies with one chaperone protein called GroEL. The addition of phosphate to this tiny machine initiates a course of events within bacterial cells leading to complex biofilm formation.(Not required to read-just understand the basic concept)
• When PrkC protein is deleted, Bacillus bacteria are unable to form biofilm
• GroEL-PrkC complex could be a target for developing new antibiotic that will be effective against many bacterial pathogens such as the ones that cause MRSA, TB and pneumonia. One strategy to tackle drug resistant bacteria will be to develop multi-drug regimen that combines traditional antibiotics with candidate drugs that can block bacterial signalling and prevent biofilm formation.
##### D. GS4 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

E. Concepts-in-News: Related Concepts to Revise/Learn

F. BILLS/ACTS/SCHEMES/ORGS IN NEWS
 BILLS/ACTS/SCHEMES/ORGANISATIONS IN NEWS About the Article
##### G. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam:)
Question 1: Choose the correct statement with reference to Biofilms.
1. Biofilms are protective layer synthesized by virus
2. Biofilms are protective layer synthesized by fungi
3. Biofilms are protective layer synthesized by Bacteria
4. Biofilms are film reels made using plant biomass.
See
Question 2: Consider the following statement:
1. Niche construction is the phenomenon by which evolving organisms modify their environment, which in turn increases or decreases their own survival rate.
2. High incidence of sickle cell anaemia in populations where there is a prevalence of malaria, due to yam cultivation depicts niche construction phenomenon.

1. 1 only
2. 2 only
3. Both 1 and 2
4. Neither 1 nor 2
See

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