UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Embryo Transfer Technology
With the objective of conservation and development of indigenous breeds under the Rashtriya Gokul Mission using Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT), a Mass Embryo Transfer programme was undertaken by the Department of Animal husbandry, Dairies and Fisheries under the scheme National Mission on Bovine Productivity. 440 embryo transfers were carried out from the 2nd of October 2017 throughout the country. The programme continued till 10th of October 2017 in 12 ETT centers. It is proposed to transfer the Embryos of Indigenous breeds such as Vechur, Deoni, Ongole, Red Sindhi, Gir and Sahiwal under this programme.
Embryo Transfer Technology
Embryo transfer technology (ETT) is a technique by which embryos are collected from a donor female and are transferred to recipient females, which serve as surrogate mothers for the remainder of the pregnancy. ETT is one of the most important reproductive biotechnologies where male and female genetic material can be utilized for faster improvement of livestock. Embryos of higher genetic merit indigenous bovines will be transferred into the surrogate cows. It has revolutionized the strategies of breeding among Bovines as a tool in optimizing the genetic improvement in cattle. ETT offers various benefits such as
- The technology will be made available at the doorstep of the farmers and will result on the rapid breeding of indigenous cattle of high genetic merit.
- A farmer can obtain a five to six fold increase in the number of off springs.
- The off springs produced will be of very high genetic merit
- The calves so produced will be free from diseases.
Rashtriya Gokul Mission
For the development and conservation of indigenous bovine breeds for enhancing productivity and milk production through induction of high genetic merit bulls for production of semen, recording of field performance, setting up of Gokul grams etc in a scientific manner, a programme called Rashtriya Gokul Mission was launched in December 2014 by the Ministry of Agriculture. It is a focused programme under the National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development.