Indian geography is an essential portion of UPSC IAS Prelims Exam. Geography has ‘overlapping’ topics like Economics (Human geography), Environment, and Current affairs. Concepts in geography should be substantiated with appropriate facts and figure while preparing for UPSC IAS Prelims exam. People around, your friends, colleagues, family, even the rickshaw wala, and dabbawala keep speaking about the clarity of concepts. But no one would not have clarified you what does it really mean. UPSC aspirant should give more importance to Indian Geography, which forms almost 80% of Geography Prelims Questions.
The agriculture in India is an important topic in Indian geography. 49% of the population in India is depending on agriculture. In the total geographical area in India, 141 million hectares is net sown area and 195 million hectare is gross cropped area.
The agriculture shares 14% of GDP and distribution of income and wealth. It provides essential amenities like food for the people and fodder for the animals. It also provides the major source of raw materials to the agro-based industries in India.
The vast relief of country, varied climate and soil conditions harvest a variety of crops. All tropical, subtropical and temperate crops are grown in India but predominantly food crop is cultivated in the 2/3rd of total cropped area.
India has three major cropping seasons called Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season is from July to October and Rabi season from October to March. The crops grown between the months of March to June called Zaid. The crops are different patterns. Here we are giving the details about the different seasons.
Rice and wheat are the staple food of India. Good monsoon rainfall, particularly during the southwest monsoon, is critical to the sowing and harvest of these crops. A decent Kharif and Rabi season is extremely basic to ensure food availability to feed the growing population in India.
- From July to October
- Harvest in September to October
- Known as Monsoon Crops
- In Arabic, Kharif means autumn
- Kharif crops need a lot of water.
- The Kharif crops include rice, maize, sorghum, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sesame, Guar, cereals like pearl millet, Arhar Dhal, soybeans, oilseeds, cotton etc.
- Sown in October – November
- Harvest in February – April
- Known as Winter Season Crops
- Require cold weather for growth
- Consumes less water
- The rabi crops include wheat, barley, oats, cereals, pulses, linseed, oilseeds etc.
- Sown in March to June (between Kharif and Rabi)
- Needs warm dry weather for growth and longer day length for flowering
- Vegetables and Seasonal fruits