NCERT Notes: Evaporation And Condensation [Geography Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Evaporation and condensation

Evaporation
  • Evaporation is a process by which water is converted from liquid to gaseous state.
  • Temperature is the main cause for evaporation.
  • The temperature at which the water starts evaporating is known as latent heat of vaporisation.
  • Rise in temperature escalates water absorption and retention capacity of the given parcel of air.
  • Movement of air substitutes the saturated layer with the unsaturated layer.
  • Hence, the greater the movement of air, the greater is the evaporation.

Condensation
  • The conversion of water vapour into the water.
  • Condensation is caused by the loss of heat.
  • When moist air is cooled, it may reach a level when its capacity to hold water vapour terminates.
  • The surplus water vapour condenses into the liquid stage.
  • In free air, condensation results from cooling around very small particles named as hygroscopic condensation nuclei.
  • Condensation depends upon the amount of cooling and the relative humidity of the air.
  • It is influenced by the volume of air, temperature, pressure and humidity.

Condensation takes place:
  • When the temperature of the air is decreased to dew point with its volume remaining constant.
  • When both the temperature and the volume are decreased.
  • When moisture is added to the air through evaporation. However, the most favourable circumstance for condensation is the reduction in air temperature.

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