NCERT Notes: Carnatic Wars - Second Carnatic War [Modern Indian History Notes UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC Civil Services Exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like Bank PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about The First Second War.

Facts about the Second Carnatic War
  • Fought between: Different claimants to the posts of the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the Nawab of the Carnatic; each claimant being supported either by the British or the French.
  • People involved: Muhammad Ali and Chanda Sahib (for the Nawabship of the Carnatic or Arcot); Muzaffar Jung and Nasir Jung (for the post of the Nizam of Hyderabad).
  • When: 1749 – 1754
  • Where: Carnatic (Southern India)
  • Result: Muzaffar Jung became Hyderabad’s Nizam. Muhammad Ali became the Nawab of the Carnatic.
Course of the Second Carnatic War
  • The first Carnatic War demonstrated the power of the well-trained European army vis-à-vis the less than efficient armies of the Indian princes.
  • The French Governor-General Dupleix wanted to take advantage of this, and assert influence and authority over the Indian kingdoms, so as to make way for a French Empire in India. So, he was looking to interfere in the internal power struggles among Indian chiefs.
  • Even though England and France were officially at peace with each other as there was no fighting in Europe, the political climate in Southern Indian at that time led their companies to fight in the subcontinent.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jah I died in 1748 starting a power struggle between his grandson (through his daughter) Muzaffar Jung, and his son Nasir Jung.
  • Anwaruddin Khan, the Nawab of the Carnatic supported Nasir Jung’s claim to the throne of the Nizam.
  • This led Muzaffar Jung to instigate war with French support against Anwaruddin, called the Battle of Ambur.
  • Anwaruddin Khan had died in the Battle of Ambur in 1749.
  • Now there was a tussle for the Nawabship of Carnatic between Muhammad Ali (son of Anwaruddin) and Chanda Sahib (son-in-law of Dost Ali Khan, a former Nawab of the Carnatic).
  • This led to a tripartite understanding among the various powers. This is explained in the table below:

Groups

Claimants for Nizam’s post (Hyderabad)

Claimants for Nawab’s post (Carnatic)

European Support

1

Muzaffar Jung

Chanda Sahib

French

2

Nasir Jung

Muhammad Ali

English

  • After Anwaruddin Khan’s death, his son Muhammad Ali fled to Trichy. Then, Chanda Sahib was proclaimed the Nawab of the Carnatic.
  • Then, French forces marched on to the Deccan and fought and killed Nasir Jung.
  • Subsequently, Muzaffar Jung was installed as the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • However, Muzaffar Jung was killed a couple of months later and the French installed Salabat Jung (another son of Asaf Jah I) as the Nizam.
  • In return, the French acquired from the Nizam four rich districts on the Coromandel Coast (Northern Sircars).
  • At this time, Trichy was under the control of Chanda Sahib and the French. But the Trichy Fort was held by Muhammad Ali.
  • To undermine the growing French power in the region, the English decided to support Muhammad Ali.
  • Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal) attacked Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, as a divisionary tactic. This is called the Siege of Arcot, in which the British won.
  • After this many battles were fought and Chanda Sahib was killed in one of them.
  • Thus, Muhammad Ali was installed as the Nawab of the Carnatic.
  • The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1754.
Effects of the Second Carnatic War
  • Although the French gained the Northern Sircars, Dupleix was criticised by the French authorities because of heavy losses to the French company.
  • Dupleix was called back to France. He was replaced by Charles-Robert Godeheu who signed the Treaty of Pondicherry.
  • As per the treaty, the English and the French were to indulge only in commercial activities in India and not interfere in sub-continental political affairs.

The Carnatic wars were the result of the Anglo-French rivalry. This rivalry manifested in wars in Europe and in India. To know more, refer this link NCERT Notes: The First Carnatic War

 

 

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