08 Apr 2019: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

April 8th 2019 CNA:-Download PDF Here


A. GS1 Related
B. GS2 Related
1. About 85% of Ujjwala beneficiaries in 4 States still use earthen stoves
C. GS3 Related
1. No end to discolouration of river Periyar in Kerala
1. No threat to biggies yet but SFBs gathering steam
D. GS4 Related
E. Editorials
1. The heat is on
1. Capital high
1. If Gandhi were alive today
F. Tidbits
G. Prelims Facts
1. Google Political Advertising Transparency Report
2. Yellow weather warning for Himachal
3. Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
4. Fungus – Candida Auris, immune to drugs is secretly sweeping the globe
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

A. GS1 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

B. GS2 Related


1. About 85% of Ujjwala beneficiaries in 4 States still use earthen stoves


A new study from the Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (r.i.c.e) shows that 85% of Ujjwala beneficiaries in rural Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan still use solid fuels.


  • It was deduced that the beneficiaries use solid fuels for cooking, due to financial reasons as well as gender inequalities.
  • The resultant indoor air pollution can lead to infant deaths and harm child development, as well as contribute to heart and lung disease among adults, especially the women, cooking on these chulha.
  • The survey, conducted in late 2018, covered a random sample of 1,550 households in 11 districts of the four States, which collectively have two-fifths of the country’s rural population.
  • The report found that only 27% of households exclusively used the gas stove. Another 37% reported using both the chulha and the gas stove, while 36% made everything on the chulha.
  • However, the r.i.c.e study shows that in the four States surveyed, there has indeed been a substantial increase in LPG ownership due to the scheme, with 76% of households now owning an LPG connection.
  • “Ujjwala beneficiaries are poorer, on average, than households who got LPG on their own. Refilling the cylinder is a greater fraction of their monthly consumption, and they may be less likely to get a refill immediately after a cylinder becomes empty,” says the report.
  • The study argues that these women, who do the unpaid labour needed for “free” solid fuels, are not typically economic decision-makers in the household, hindering a shift to LPG usage.

Way forward:

  • Awareness needs to be created on the harmful effects of using chulah, on women’s’ health. Bringing about a behavioural change is the need of the hour.
  • Higher refill subsidies and monitoring may help to change behaviour.
  • The survey found that while 70% of respondents thought the gas stove was better for the health of the cook (typically a woman), more than 86% felt that cooking on the chulhawas better for the health of those eating, reflecting ignorance of the fact that ambient air pollution is harmful even to those who are not cooking the food. Such myths need to be dispelled.
  • Awareness campaigns for the Ujjwala Yojna need to move beyond benefits for women in order to change household behaviour.

Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY):

  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana – Scheme for Providing Free LPG connections to Women from BPL Households.
  • The Ujjwala Yojna, launched in 2016, subsidises LPG connections for rural households by providing a free gas cylinder, regulator and pipe.
  • Central government data shows that more than six crore households have received a connection through the scheme.
  • Providing LPG connections to BPL households was aimed at ensuring universal coverage of cooking gas in the country. This measure empowered women and protect their health.
  • It was expected that the scheme will reduce drudgery and the time spent on cooking. And also provide employment for rural youth in the supply chain of cooking gas.
  • This is the first time in the history of the country that the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas would implement a welfare scheme benefitting crores of women belonging to the poorest households.
  • About 75 crore Indians, especially women and girls, are exposed to severe household air pollution (HAP) from the use of solid fuels such as biomass, dung cakes and coal for cooking. A report from the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare places HAP as the second leading risk factor contributing to India’s disease burden.
  • According to the World Health Organization, solid fuel use is responsible for about 13% of all mortality and morbidity in India (measured as Disability-Adjusted Life Years), and causes about 40% of all pulmonary disorders, nearly 30% of cataract incidences, and over 20% each of ischemic heart disease, lung cancer and lower respiratory infection.

C. GS3 Related


1. No end to discolouration of river Periyar in Kerala


The Periyar River, which provides drinking water to Kochi city and adjoining areas yet again turned black near the Pathalam Regulator cum Bridge.


  • The discolouration of Periyar and fish kill has been a serious issue for last couple of years. Decrease in dissolved oxygen level has caused several fish-kills in the past few years.
  • Discolouration of water, which has been a major cause of concern, continues.
  • While water turned pitch black in one stream, it was milky near the regulator.
  • Environmental activists have been protesting against the pollution of the river and demanding steps for its protection. For the record, the pollution of the river system had earlier led to violent protests in the region.

What is the reason for discolouration?

  • It was found that the discolouration was due to the poor quality of water as a result of eutrophication.
  • When excessive nutrients reach the waterbody, it will lead to algal bloom. A few days later, algae will die and decay, resulting in a foul smell and discolouration of water. Water in some reaches of the river system has been stagnant. Reduced water flow in the system has added to the deteriorating water quality.
  • Huge quantities of organic load in the form of sewage from nearby townships are regularly reaching the river system.
  • On residents’ charge that the discharge of untreated effluents into the river from industrial units was causing discolouration of water.
  • Eutrophication due to dumping of sewage is to be largely blamed for discolouration.

Way forward:

  • The river flow should not be restricted by closing the bund so that the natural pollutants will flow away from the water.
  • Excessive discharge of pollutants from an unauthorized industrial unit functioning upstream must be controlled.
  • Areas near industrial units are to be regularly monitored.

Periyar River:

  • Periyar (meaning: big river) is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala.
  • It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns.
  • The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala.
  • It generates a significant proportion of Kerala’s electrical power via the Idukki Dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity.
  • The river also provides water for irrigation and domestic use throughout its course besides supporting a rich fishery.
  • Due to these reasons, the river has been named the “Lifeline of Kerala”.
  • Kochi city, in the vicinity of the river mouth, draws its water supply from Aluva, an upstream site sufficiently free of seawater intrusion.
  • Twenty five percent of Kerala’s industries are along the banks of river Periyar.
  • The source of the Periyar lies high in the Western Ghats.

Category: ECONOMY

1. No threat to biggies yet but SFBs gathering steam


  • Data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) show that the small finance banks, in total, saw their deposits grow 31.6% in the third quarter (ended December) of this financial year, compared with the second quarter.
  • The SFBs are catering to a segment of the market that was not catered to by regular banks. There is no direct competition from SFBs to the scheduled commercial banks, but are complementary.
  • The phenomenal growth of small finance banks has come on a very small base which is why bigger banks and NBFCs don’t see them as competition yet.


  • The ₹30,000-crore deposits held by small finance banks constitute only 0.2% of all scheduled commercial banks’ deposits.
  • Although the consensus opinion in the industry is that small finance banks do not pose a threat to either conventional banks or non-banking financial companies (NBFC), the sector has nevertheless been seeing remarkable growth in credit disbursement as well as deposits, albeit on a low base.
  • This phenomenal growth, however, has come on a very small base and that’s perhaps why the bigger banks and NBFCs don’t see small finance banks as a competition just yet.
  • If the genesis of small finance banks is looked at, they have all emerged from being a non-deposit NBFC or micro-lenders.
  • If you look at the genesis of small finance banks, they have all emerged from being a non-deposit NBFC or micro-lenders.

Small Finance Banks:

  • Small finance banks are a type of niche banks in India.
  • Banks with a small finance bank license can provide basic banking service of acceptance of deposits and lending.
  • The aim behind these to provide financial inclusion to sections of the economy not being served by other banks, such as small business units, small and marginal farmers, micro and small industries and unorganised sector entities.
  • The RBI has not put any restriction on the operations of small finance banks. They are meant to provide basic banking facilities for the poor and small businessmen.
  • Small Finance Banks should have a minimum capital of Rs. 100 crore and maintain a capital adequacy of 15%. Further, Minimum initial contribution of the promoter to the paid-up capital shall be 40% and they can bring down his holding to 26% in 12 years from commencement. RBI makes listing mandatory once the net worth reaches Rs. 500 crore.
  • They have been mandated to extend 75% of their credit to priority sector lending. Further, at least half of these loans should be below Rs. 25 Lakh.

D. GS4 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

E. Editorials


1. The heat is on


The assessments from Skymet, has indicated that there is a prospect of an El Niño, often associated with drought conditions, taking hold.

Read more about: El Niño


  • A forecast of a below average monsoon in 2019, after last year’s erratic rainfall that flooded Kerala and crippled agriculture in eastern and western States, is a cause for worry.
  • The prediction by Skymet must, of course, be considered along with other factors that seem to weaken the El Niño link, such as a dipole weather phenomenon in the Indian Ocean.
  • Should the monsoon, which normally sets in between June 1 and July 15 across the country, turn out to be deficient, it will add to the pressures on rural employment and the economy as a whole.
  • Things may become clearer when the India Meteorological Department also issues its forecast, although error margins and the erratic nature of rainfall in different regions render the exercise fraught with uncertainty. Last year, for instance, the realisation of rainfall was 91% of the long-term average, while the prediction was for 97%.
  • During the current year, there is apprehension that the focus of administrators will mainly be on the conduct of the elections, relegating the public health risk of heat waves to the backburner.

Indian Ocean Dipole:

  • Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is a miniature version of the El Nino – La Nina phenomenon occuring in the Indian Ocean from time to time.
  • It has negative and positive phases.
  • In the negative case, the sea surface warms up to the east of the Ocean basin relative to the west. This causes convection and precipitation to be confined to the East Indian Ocean, robbing mainland India of its share and affecting rainfall.
  • During a positive IOD phase, exactly the reverse happens; but a warmer west Indian Ocean has been found to fuel a concurrent Indian Monsoon.
  • Thus the event has a more direct and immediate impact on the monsoon than the El Nino-La Nina event.

Heat Wave:

  • World Meteorological Organization defines a heat wave as five or more consecutive days during which the daily maximum temperature exceeds the average maximum temperature by five degrees Celsius.
  • If the maximum temperature of any place continues to be more than 45° C consecutively for two days, it is called a heat wave condition.
  • Heat wave is also called a “silent disaster” as it develops slowly and kills and injures humans and animals nationwide.
  • In India, heat waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.
  • Heat waves are more frequent over the Indo-Gangetic plains of India.

Read more about Heat Wave Risk Reduction (Disaster Management)

Way forward:

  • It is the responsibility of State administrations to prepare for the likelihood of a heat spike, particularly during April and May, to prevent loss of life and extreme distress to communities.
  • Official agencies and NGOs should start adopting the drill on this, using the template drawn up by the National Disaster Management Authority.
  • Local administrations must draw up plans to address heat stress and possible water scarcity.
  • The key elements of protection in a heat wave are avoiding exposure during the hottest part of the day around noon, especially in the case of senior citizens, staying adequately hydrated, wearing suitable clothing including headgear, and creating shade in public places.
  • These messages and weather alerts can be disseminated through television, mobile phone messaging and social media platforms.
  • Urban local bodies, in particular, have a responsibility to care for the large number of vulnerable city dwellers.
  • Yet, few cities have drawn up proper heat action plans to respond to extreme weather or made them public.
  • With the availability of advance weather alerts, there is no reason why local bodies cannot institute remedial measures. Mitigating the effect of heat waves is vital to ensuring a high turnout in the elections by making it safe for voters.
  • India is looking at another uncertain monsoon, bringing into sharp relief the neglected potential of decentralised water-harvesting.
  • It is more than a decade since the National Commission on Farmers suggested the wider adoption of both rainwater harvesting and aquifer recharge, in order to provide irrigation for small farmers. It is time to take measures that will help communities achieve resilience.

Category: ECONOMY

1. Capital high


The inflow of foreign capital to India’s stock market in the month of March has been the highest since February 2012. Foreign investors appear to have rediscovered India.


  • The inflow of foreign capital into India’s stock market in the month of March hit a high of $4.89 billion. As a result, the stock market rose a solid 8% in March.
  • Foreign investment in Indian equities stood at $2.42 billion in February, as against a net outflow of $4.4 billion during the same month a year earlier, and is expected to be strong in April as well.

Reason for increased inflow of foreign capital:

  • Both cyclical and structural factors are behind this sudden uptick in foreign investment that has helped the rupee make an impressive comeback.
  • The rupee has appreciated by about 7% against the dollar since early October.
  • Last year, India received more foreign direct investment than China for the first time in two decades.
  • While the Chinese economy has been slowing down considerably in the last one year, India has emerged as the fastest-growing major economy.
  • Doubts over the robustness of the GDP calculation method notwithstanding, it is clear that investors expect India to be a major source of global growth in the coming years.
  • Other short-term reasons may also be behind some of the recent inflow of capital into the country.
    • For one, there is a sense among a section of investors that their fears of political instability are misplaced.
    • More important, there are clear signs that western central banks have turned dovish. Both the Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank, for instance, have promised to keep interest rates low for longer. This has caused investors to turn towards relatively high-yielding emerging market debt.
    • Indian mid-cap stocks, which suffered a deep rout last year, are now too attractive to ignore for many foreign investors.

Way forward:

  • A few some analysts opine that the fund flows would be difficult to sustain as the regional economy is pressured due to slowing global demand and the US-China trade war
  • The return of foreign capital is obviously a good sign for the Indian economy. The policymakers need to be careful not to take foreign investors for granted.
  • Other emerging Asian economies will be competing hard to attract foreign capital, which is extremely skilful and quick. Any mistake by policymakers will affect India’s image as an investment destination.
  • Political and economic stress in some of the emerging markets such as Turkey, Argentina and Brazil could flow through into Asia and affect asset prices.
  • To retain investor confidence, whichever government comes to power after the general election will need to increase the pace of structural reforms and also ensure proper macroeconomic management with the help of the Reserve Bank of India.
  • Long-pending reforms to the labour and land markets are the most pressing structural changes that will affect India’s long-term growth trajectory.
  • The high fiscal deficit of both the Centre and the State governments and the disruptive outflow of foreign capital are the other macroeconomic challenges. These are some issues that need to be solved sooner than later.

Category: ETHICS

1. If Gandhi were alive today

The article analyses, if Mahatma Gandhi were alive today, whether he would have participated in the elections or not.

  • What if Gandhi were alive? He would have certainly tried to create awareness in the minds of the younger generation.
  • It is also safe to assume that he would have had a strong intervention (example, fasting unto death) in relation with the cases of corruption, sexual harassment and populist demagogy in everyday politics.


  • One thing is evident today: while Gandhi is hailed as the founding father of the Indian republic and one of the architects of democratic politics in modern India, it is not recognised equally well today that we can draw valuable lessons of political action and democracy from him.
  • However, it goes without saying that Gandhi is perhaps more relevant now than ever before for our understanding of elections, at a time when India finds itself at a crossroads between hope for civic republicanism and practice of demagogic populism.

Civic Republicanism:

  • Civic Republicanism centers on two interrelated ideas, civic responsibility and community. Civic responsibility refers to the sense of responsibility that we have toward one another, and for one another’s well being.
  • It is the practice of placing the common good above our individual self-interest.
  • We do this willingly because, in communities, we get to know one another and, in turn, feel connected to the people around us. Our neighbors, religious leaders, teachers, and store owners are all part of this network of common bonds we call community.
  • In other words, we learn not to be narcissists because we have learned the benefits of mutual dependence and mutual responsibility.

Demographic Populism:

  • Demogogic populism involves the use of speeches, policies and ideology to appeal to the masses and trying to win people’s support, specifically by appealing to their emotions rather than using reasonable arguments.
  • It is a range of political approaches that deliberately appeal to “the people”.

The need for moral leaders:

  • It is no secret to anyone who lives in India and shares time and passion with Indians from different walks of life that the small cast of politicians and their supporters are not engaged in what Gandhi called “an experiment with Truth”.
  • This is perhaps because politics in contemporary India, as everywhere else in the world, finds itself prisoner of the administrative system and the corporate mindset, both of which suffer from a severe absence of self-examination.
  • Indeed, what India needs most at this time of elections is not mass mobilisers but moral leaders.

Gandhi’s views:

  • Considering the profound spiritual nature of Gandhi’s personality and his deep ethical view of politics, we could say that if he was among us today, he would have certainly boycotted the elections.
  • He would have been troubled by the Machiavellian essence of Indian politics and its populist and demagogic end results.
  • Assuredly, it is important to grasp Gandhi’s character above all as a man who remained all through his life as a person truthful to the ethical.
  • In a sense, then, Gandhi’s view of politics starts where party politics ends.
  • What Gandhi understands by politics is the art of organising society, not the technique of power making and party organising.
  • That is why Gandhian politics is at the same time anti-populist and anti-elitist.

Democracy and mobocracy

  • Gandhi has always been considered as a charismatic leader, but his unmediated appeal to the citizens was based neither on a Manichaean friend-enemy distinction, nor on the supreme will of the masses.
  • As the history of modern India shows us, while political parties have been subservient to the masses and the masses have followed party leaders without questioning, some political figures like Gandhi or Ambedkar had the courage to turn against mobs.
  • Gandhi considered democracy and mobocracy as opposite forms of conducting politics and organising Indian society.
  • Gandhi affirmed: “Those who claim to lead the masses must resolutely refuse to be led by them, if we want to avoid mob law and desire ordered progress for the country. I believe that mere protestation of one’s opinion and surrender to the mass opinion is not only not enough, but in matters of vital importance, leaders must act contrary to the mass opinion if it does not commend itself to their reason.”
  • Gandhi considered contempt for civic virtue as a betrayal of the spirit of democracy. For him, democratic governance, unlike party politics, which always tends towards unexamined and obedient masses, was based on the maturity of citizens.
  • Gandhi’s sharp reaction against the Chauri Chaura incident was an expression of his rejection of mobocracy.
  • After this incident, Gandhi revoked his plans for launching mass civil disobedience at Bardoli on the ground that the masses were not morally prepared for a non-violent struggle against the British.

Gandhi’s idea of Politics:

  • But it is also worth mentioning that Gandhi considered masses guilty of what politicians became. As he put it: “We the people make the rulers what they are.” Moreover, Gandhi insisted on the twin concepts of self-transformation and civic maturity. As a matter of fact, he underlined: “If we reform ourselves, the rulers will automatically do so.”
  • Gandhi, therefore, approached pragmatic politics as a form of character-building and not necessarily organising a political party and winning seats in Parliament. He called it “a capacity to regulate national life”.
  • He underlined, “If national life becomes so perfect as to become self-regulated, no representation becomes necessary. There is then a state of enlightened anarchy. In such a state everyone is his own ruler. In the ideal state therefore, there is no political power because there is no state. But the ideal is never fully realised in life. Hence the classical statement of Thoreau that the government is best which governs the least.”
  • Undoubtedly, Gandhi, the moral leader, was not a pure idealist. He was a pragmatic practitioner, who wanted to apply ethical values and civilisational criteria to the political organisation of Indian society and beyond.

Current political scenario in India:

  • Strangely, the Gandhian common sense is considered as an irrelevant and insignificant matter to the eyes of those who are ruling India and the world today.
  • Unfortunately, in today’s world, political circumstances and temperaments do not allow politicians to concentrate anymore on the education and duty of citizens.
  • That is why, while uncritical and utilitarian minds are shaped and formed in universities in India and around the world, originality and exemplarity of future Mahatma Gandhis are killed in the embryo.

When power politics took over:

  • However, Gandhian idea of ideal state and politics would have been too much for those who are involved today in politics. Despite the symbolic devotion which is shown to Gandhi by political leaders, there is a feeling of comfort that a stubborn and critical veteran of democratic action like him is no more around.
  • In a more sinister manner, we even find strong reasons of rejecting a national figure like Gandhi in Nathuram Godse’s analysis of his assassination: “I foresaw that I shall be totally ruined and the only thing that I could expect from the people would be nothing but hatred and that I shall have lost all my honour, even more valuable than my life, if I were to kill Gandhiji. But at the same time I felt that Indian politics in the absence of Gandhiji would be more practical, able to retaliate, and would be powerful with armed forces.” Godse was right.
  • Once Gandhi was eliminated, power politics could take over.

India has been independent for 71 years based on electoral liberalism in the name of Gandhi. But for more than 71 years, politicians have distanced themselves from Gandhi’s legacy. Unsurprisingly, once again Indians will go to the polls without having the Mahatma on their minds.

F. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

G. Prelims Facts

1. Google Political Advertising Transparency Report

  • The goal of Google Political Advertising Transparency Report is to provide greater transparency in political advertising on Google, YouTube, and partner properties.
  • This report includes information about spending on ads related to elections that feature a candidate for elected office, a current officeholder, or political party in a parliamentary system.
  • The India report includes ads that feature a political party, a political candidate or current member of the Lok Sabha, or any ads that are run by a political party, political candidate, or current member of the Lok Sabha.
  • Data in the Political Advertising Transparency Report is cumulative based on the launch date for a country or region.
  • The data is updated weekly.

2. Yellow weather warning for Himachal

  • The Meteorological Department issued a yellow weather warning for rain in Himachal Pradesh.
  • The weather department has forecast thunderstorm with hail in isolated places of mid hills.
  • The weather office issues colour-coded warnings to alert people ahead of severe or hazardous weather which has the potential to cause “damage, widespread disruption or danger to life”.
  • Yellow is the least dangerous of the weather warnings. It indicates the possibility of severe weather over the next few days that could affect people.

Four colour codes are issued to indicate various categories of alerts. Here is what each alert means:

  • Green (All is well): No advisory is issued
  • Yellow (Be aware): Severely bad weather is possible over the next few days, plan ahead thinking about possible travel delays and disruption of day-to-day activities possible. It indicates the weather may change or worsen in the next few days.
  • Amber (Be prepared): There is an increased likelihood of extremely bad weather, which could potentially cause travel delays, road and rail closures, and interruption of power supply. There could be risk to life and property. Amber means people need to be prepared to change plans and protect themselves, their family and community from the impacts of the severe weather based on the forecast from the Met Office.
  • Red (Take action): Extremely bad weather is expected. People need to take action to keep themselves and others safe. Widespread damage, travel and power disruption and risk to life are likely. People must avoid dangerous areas and follow the advice of the emergency services and local authorities.

3. Dudhwa Tiger Reserve

  • The Dudhwa Tiger Reserve is a protected area in Uttar Pradesh It comprises of the Dudhwa National Park, Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • It shares the north-eastern boundary with Nepal, which is defined to a large extent by the Mohana River.
  • In 1987, the Dudhwa National Park and the Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary were brought under the purview of the ‘Project Tiger’ as Dudhwa Tiger Reserve. The Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary was added in the year 2000.
  • It is one of India’s 47 Tiger Reserves.
  • The protected area is home for tigers, leopards, Asiatic black bears, sloth bears, Swamp deer, rhinoceros, elephants, cheetal, hog deer, barking deer, sambar, wild boar and hispid hare.

4. Fungus – Candida Auris, immune to drugs is secretly sweeping the globe

  • In May, an elderly man was admitted to Mount Sinai Hospital in Brooklyn, U.S., for abdominal surgery.
  • A blood test revealed that he was infected with a newly discovered germ as deadly as it was mysterious. Doctors swiftly isolated him in the intensive care unit.
  • The germ, a fungus called Candida auris, preys on people with weakened immune systems, and it is quietly spreading across the globe.
  • Over the past five years, it has hit a neonatal unit in Venezuela, swept through a hospital in Spain, forced a prestigious British medical centre to shut down its intensive care unit, and taken root in India, Pakistan and South Africa.
  • Recently C. auris reached New York, New Jersey and Illinois, leading the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to add it to a list of germs deemed “urgent threats.”
  • The man at Mount Sinai died after 90 days in the hospital, but C. auris did not. Tests showed it was everywhere in his room, so invasive that the hospital needed special cleaning equipment and had to rip out some of the ceiling and floor tiles to eradicate it.
  • auris is so tenacious, in part, because it is impervious to major antifungal medications, making it a new example of one of the world’s most intractable health threats: the rise of drug-resistant infections.
  • For decades, public health experts have warned that the overuse of antibiotics was reducing the effectiveness of drugs that have lengthened life spans by curing bacterial infections once commonly fatal. But lately, there has been an explosion of resistant fungi as well, adding a new and frightening dimension to a phenomenon that is undermining a pillar of modern medicine.
  • Simply put, fungi, just like bacteria, are evolving defences to survive medicines.

Read about: Electoral Bonds

H. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam

Q1) Consider the following statements:
  1. Bengal Florican or Bengal Bustard is Native to Indian Subcontinent.
  2. It is Critically Endangered as per the IUCN Red List.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q2) Dudhwa National Park is in

a. Gujarat
b. Rajasthan
c. Madhya Pradesh
d. Uttar Pradesh

Answer: d

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q3) Consider the following statements:
  1. Periyar River is the second longest River in Kerala.
  2. The Idukki Dam is the largest hydro-electric project in Kerala and lies on the Periyar.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b

Explanation: Periyar is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns.

Q4) Consider the following statements:
  1. The main objective of the UJALA program is to provide LPG connections to BPL households.
  2. The Electricity Distribution Company and Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) are implementing the programme.

Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?

a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b

Explanation: “UJALA” – an acronym for Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All. Under the scheme, 20W LED tube lights and BEE 5-star rated energy efficient fans are also distributed to the consumers. The main objective of UJALA program is to promote efficient lighting, enhance awareness on using efficient equipment which reduce electricity bills and help preserve environment.

Read more about UJALA Scheme.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


  1. Explain the Constitutional procedure for selection of a successor in case of the demise of a sitting chief minister of a state. (10 Marks)
  2. India had posted the highest growth in patent applications in 2018. In the backdrop of this news, analyse why a robust IPR policy is imperative for India’s growth and development. (10 Marks)

See previous CNA

April 8th 2019 CNA:-Download PDF Here

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