El Nino

El Nino is an important phenomenon in Geography. It is a must-read topic for UPSC preparation. In this article, El Nino is discussed for IAS exam geography.

El Nino can be understood as a natural phenomenon wherein the ocean temperatures rise especially in parts of the Pacific ocean. It is the nomenclature which is referred to for a periodic development along the coast of Peru. This development is a temporary replacement of the cold current along the coast of Peru.   El Nino is a Spanish word. The term El Nino basically means ‘the child’. This is due to the fact that this current starts to flow around Christmas and hence the name referring to baby Christ.   Another natural phenomenon, similar to El Nino is the La Nina, which is also in news these days. The term La Nina literally means ‘ little girl’. It is termed as opposite to the phenomenon of El Nino as it results in the ‘cooling’ of the ocean water in parts of the Pacific ocean.   Both of them also result in the changes in atmospheric conditions along with the oceanic changes.  

ENSO:  It is called El Nino Southern Oscillation. In normal times, when the tropical south Pacific ocean experiences high pressure, alternatively the tropical Indian ocean experiences low pressure conditions.   However, these pressure conditions are sometimes reversed, and results in low pressure in the Pacific and alternatively high pressure in the Indian ocean. This is the periodic change in pressure conditions which is referred to as the Southern Oscillation.   These changes in the pressure conditions being developed in the Pacific and Indian oceans are connected with the phenomenon of El Nino. This connected phenomenon is referred to as the El Nino Southern Oscillations or the ENSO.  

El Nino Effects

  • El Nino results in the rise of sea surface temperatures
  • It also weakens the trade winds of the affected region
  • In India, Australia, it can bring about drought conditions. This affects the crop productivity largely. It has been also observed certain times, that EL Nino may not bring drought but cause heavy rainfall. In both the cases, it causes heavy damage.
  • However, in some other countries it may result in a complete reversal, i.e., excessive rainfall.


  • Keeping a check on the sea surface temperatures
  • Maintaining sufficient buffer stocks of food grains and ensuring their smooth supply
  • Ensuring relevant support to the farmer community including economic help
  • Alternative ways to be promoted such as the practice of sustainable agriculture

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