05 Dec 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 05 Dec 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Sri Lanka’s Malaiyaha Tamils in dire Straits: expert
2. India, Russia set to ink AK-203 rifle deal worth ₹5,000 crore
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. SC condemns red tape in sexual harassment cases
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. What is the debate on the Dam Safety Bill?
2. When can an individual get statutory bail?
3. How is hallmarking being implemented?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Culture mapping of 80 villages kicks off
2. Parliament an embodiment of people’s will, says President
3. An innovation that can better protect power grids
4. Study finds mechanism of blood clots after giving Oxford vaccine
G. Tidbits
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. India, Russia set to ink AK-203 rifle deal worth ₹5,000 crore

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Prelims: AK-203, CATSAA

Mains: Determinants of India-Russia Relations

Context:

  • The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) has given its final approval for a deal with Russia to manufacture AK-203 assault rifles in India.

Significance of the Deal for India:

  • The defence agreement with Russia will significantly increase India’s defence industrial self-sufficiency.
  • The AK-203 rifles will replace the INSAS rifles that have been in use for almost three decades, resulting in increased efficiency.
  • They will improve the Indian Army’s operational efficacy in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations.

Determinants of India-Russia Relations in light of Russian President’s Visit in India: –

  1. Criticism of QUAD : Russia criticizes India’s Quad effort with the United States, Australia, and Japan, as well as the concept of the “Indo-Pacific.”
  2. Concerns over “Indo-Pacific”:
    1. The “Asia-Pacific” was seen by Russia as more “inclusive” than the “Indo-Pacific,” while the “Indo-Pacific” was seen as an unequal partnership.
    2. India, on the other hand, sees both the Asia-Pacific and the Indo-Pacific frameworks as being intended for “issue-based cooperation.”
  3. CAATSA Sanctions:
    1. Despite the fact that the delivery of S-400 missile defence systems has raised India’s prospects of being sanctioned under CAATSA (Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act), the country has maintained that its defence procurement strategy is governed by “strategic autonomy.”

Know more about India-Russia Relations in the linked article.
Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. SC condemns red tape in sexual harassment cases

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential

Prelims: Sexual Harassment at the workplace Law

Mains: Different Aspects and Challenges of Sexual harassment at the Workplace

Context:

  • In a recent judgement, the Supreme Court pointed out the power dynamics and condemns red tape in sexual harassment cases.

Supreme Court observation on sexual harassment at the workplace: –

  • The right against sexual harassment at workplace is part of the fundamental right to a dignified life.
  • When it comes to sexual harassment charges, the courts should not be “hyper-technical.”
  • When a subordinate aggrieved of sexual harassment consider reporting sexual misconduct of their superior, there are several deterrents that has to be considered.
  • The decision noted a growing tendency of invalidating sexual misconduct investigations based on “hyper-technical interpretations of the applicable service standards.”

Know more about Sexual Harassment At Work Place in the linked article.

2. When can an individual get statutory bail?

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Prelims: Statutory Bail.

Mains:  Critical Evaluation of Statutory bail; Statutory bail as a fundamental Right.

Context: –

The National Investigative Agency (NIA) has moved the Supreme Court challenging the Bombay High Court’s order granting bail to lawyer-activists.

Background: 

  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has petitioned the Supreme Court to overturn a Bombay High Court ruling awarding Sudha Bharadwaj bail.
  • The court has ordered the NIA Court to determine on the conditions of her release in its bail order. 
  • In the same instance, she was allowed ‘default bail,’ while eight others were refused the benefit. 
  • Even though statutory bail is typically regarded “an indefeasible right,” the case underscores the complexities inherent in a court evaluating the conditions in which it is granted or rejected. 

What is Statutory bail?

  • Default bail, also known as statutory bail, is a right to bail that emerges when police fail to complete an investigation into a person in court custody within a certain time limit.
  • When the police are unable to finish an investigation within 24 hours, they must present the suspect in court and seek orders for either police or judicial detention, according to Section 167(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • This clause refers to the total amount of time a person can be held in custody before a charge sheet is filed.
  • The police have 60 days to finish their investigation and file a final report with the court for most offences.
  • The period allowed is 90 days if the offence carries a death sentence, life imprisonment, or a sentence of at least 10 years in prison.
  • A magistrate cannot extend a person’s judicial remand beyond the 60- or 90-day limit.
  • If the investigation is not completed at the end of this time, the court will release the person “if he is willing to and does supply bail.”

Know more about bail in the linked article.

Right To Seek Default Bail As A Fundamental Right:-

  • The Supreme Court has clarified that the right to seek default bail under Section 167(2) of the Criminal Procedure Code stems from Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • It is a basic right, not only a legislative right. 
  • It has been determined that it is an inalienable component of the right to personal liberty protected by Article 21 of the Constitution.

How does the provision vary for special laws?

  • Only ordinary criminal law applies to the 60- or 90-day term.
  • Special enactments give the police more leeway in closing up the investigation. The duration is 180 days under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act.
  • The default limit under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act is 90 days.
  • These rules demonstrate that a time extension is not automatic and needs a court authorization.
  • Regardless of the nature of the offence, default or statutory bail is a legal option. 
  • The charge sheet must be prepared within a certain amount of time after the accused is remanded for the first time.

Conclusion:

  • The right to statutory bail must be invoked by the individual in detention, which is a condition for its grant. 
  • There is no automatic bail if the charge sheet is not filed within the time limit and there is no application for bail under Section 167(2) of CrPc. 
  • The right to bail in the event of an investigative agency’s failure is often regarded as an “indefeasible right,” although it should be used at the proper time.

3. How is hallmarking being implemented?

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Prelims: Hallmark Unique Identification (HUID)

Mains:  Hallmark Unique Identification (HUID)- Benefits and concerns for the Gold Industry in India.

Context: – 

The Government of India has made hallmarking of gold jewellery mandatory which is being implemented by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) in a phased manner.

Hallmark Unique Identification (HUID): – 

  • The Hallmark Unique Identification (HUID) code is a six-digit alphanumeric code. 
  • It is given to each item of jewellery during the hallmarking process and is unique to that piece.
  • The unique number is physically imprinted on jewellery at the Assaying & Hallmarking (A&H) centre.
  • The hallmark is made up of three symbols that provide information about the item of jewellery.
  • The BIS logo is the first symbol; the purity and fineness sign is the second; and the HUID is the third symbol.
  • For 14-, 18-, and 22-carat gold jewellery  hallmarking and HUID are mandatory.

Need of the HUID:-

  • Each item of jewellery is given a unique HUID number, allowing for traceability. 
  • It is crucial to the legitimacy of hallmarking and to the resolution of adulteration accusations.
  • Its goal is to build consumer trust by bringing openness to the jewellery industry.
  • Registration of jewellers is an automated procedure with no human intervention in HUID-based hallmarking.
  • In addition to its role in authentication, it also aids in the detection of trade malpractice.

Benefits for the consumer:-

  • The HUID concept exemplifies the type of global leadership that India possesses and must demonstrate in gold-related reforms.
  • The goal of requiring gold hallmarking is to safeguard the interests of consumers.
  • Consumers can get ‘third-party assurance’ on the quality of gold jewellery by having it hallmarked.
  • Jewellers are given certificates of registration to sell hallmarked jewellery under the system.

Concerns around the process: –

  • Infrastructural challenges are also a growing issue. This process of hallmarking also affects trade support.
  • As traceability of hallmarking integrity and financial tracking of purchases have been ated.

Conclusion: –

The HUID system has the potential to be implemented internationally to improve gold confidence at the retail level and eliminate a significant barrier to gold purchases.

This is a digitally backed project that will increase openness in the ecosystem and provide a win-win solution for both customers and the Indian gold industry.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Culture mapping of 80 villages kicks off

Context:

  • IGNCA has decided to create an interactive database of artists and art practices from significant village areas.

About the Project

  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) will be conducting Culture mapping of 80 villages associated with noted personalities in history, unique crafts and festivals.
  • Some of the Examples on the list are:
Name of the Village State Significance
Sempore or Pandrenthan Jammu and Kashmir Associated With 14th Century Mystic Lal Ded Or Lalleshwari.
Choglamsar and Wanla Ladakh Wood Carving.
Khatkar Kalan village Punjab Memorial Of Bhagat Singh
Reni village Uttarakhand Where The Chipko Movement Started
Kathputli Colony Delhi Known For The “Migrant Kathputli Artists”
Ettayapuram Tamil Nadu The Birthplace Of Poet Subramania Bharathi
Thiruchigadi Tamil Nadu A Village Of “Women Potters”

About Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA): –

  • The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts was founded by the late Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi in 1985.
  • The IGNCA is India’s leading government-funded arts institution.
  • It is a self-contained institute under the control of the Union Ministry of Culture.
  • IGNCA encourages a dimension of mutual interdependence, interrelated with nature, social structure and cosmology.

2. Parliament an embodiment of people’s will, says President

Context:

  • The President of India inaugurated the centennial year celebration of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC).

Significance of Public Accounts Committee (PAC):-

  • The PAC is one of the most powerful financial committees of Parliament.
  • There is a need for harmonising the expenditure on freebies under welfare obligations of the Governments with developmental needs.
  • The PAC needs to reinvent itself to more effectively ensure financial discipline in the context of the Union Government’s budgetary expenditure.

Know more about the Public Accounts Committee in the linked article.

3. An innovation that can better protect power grids

Context:

  • Researchers from IIT Kanpur have come up with an innovation that can help protect power grids against sudden current surges.

Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL):

  • SFCL makes use of a superconductor, which permits current to flow without dissipation under normal conditions since it has zero resistance to current flow in the superconducting state.
  • It protects the grid from huge current surges and the resulting fires.
  • It may also predict when current surges will occur and alert the system.

4. Study finds mechanism of blood clots after giving Oxford vaccine

Context:

  • A multi-institutional study has revealed the mechanism responsible for blood clots arising from thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS).

Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS)

  • Thrombocytopenia syndrome causes low platelet count.
    • Platelets are blood cells that prevent blood loss when arteries are injured.
  • A low number of platelets can cause no symptoms or increase the risk of bleeding or, in rare situations, clotting.
  • Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) happens in extremely rare cases because of ultra-rare side-effects from vaccines.

G. Tidbits

Nothing here for today!!!

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1 Which amongst the following is the string puppet native to the state of Rajasthan?
  1. Kalasutri Bahulya
  2. Sakhi kandhei
  3. Putala Natch
  4. Kathputli 
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation

Kalasutri Bahulya:

  • Kalasutri Bahulya comes from Maharashtra which has a long tradition of string puppet theatre. 
  • ‘Kal’ refers to the forefingers of the human hand, ‘Sutri’ to black thread, and ‘Bahuliya’ to puppets.

Sakhi kandhei: 

  • ‘Sakhi Kandhei Nacha’ is a puppet dance from Odisha.
  • The string puppetry show Sakhi kandhei is particularly in the Kendrapara area of Odisha.

Putala Natch: 

  • Putola Nach is a traditional Assamese string puppet theatre from North East India.
  • It is typically used to perform episodes from epics like the Ramayana or Mahabharatha. 
  • Putala bhaona is another name for Putala nach.

Kathputli:

  • Kathputli is Rajasthan’s traditional string puppetry which is costumed in authentic Rajasthani dress. 
  • The Kathputli term originates from ‘Kath’ means wood and ‘Putli’ means doll.  
  • Hence Option D is correct.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to the ICON mission:
  1. It is a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and its Russian equivalent Roscosmos
  2. Its objective is to help understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation

  • The Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) is a satellite that studies changes in the Earth’s ionosphere.
    • The ionosphere is a dynamic zone high in our atmosphere where weather from the ground collides with weather from space.
  •  ICON examines interaction between Earth’s weather systems and space weather caused by the Sun. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
Q3. With respect to Antarctic Fur Seals, which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. Antarctic Fur Seals are widely distributed in the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic Convergence.
  2. Its IUCN status is Vulnerable
  3. They do have any natural Predators

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation

  • Antarctic Fur Seals can be found in large numbers at the Antarctic Convergence in the Southern Ocean. South Georgia, as well as other sub-Antarctic islands, are home to the majority of the inhabitants. Hence Statement 1 is correct.
  • IUCN Status: Least Concern.(NOT Vulnerable) Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Sharks and Killer Whales attack Antarctic Fur Seals, and the pups are vulnerable to Leopard Seals. Hence Statement 3 is incorrect.
Q4. Colony collapse disorder an abnormal phenomenon is associated with
  1. Marine mammals, where underwater noise interferes with key life functions
  2. Birds, unable to trace their migratory paths
  3. Corals, resulting in Coral bleaching
  4. Honey Bees, where majority of worker bees disappear
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation

  • Colony Collapse Disorder(CCD) occurs when the majority of worker bees in a colony vanish, leaving behind just a queen.
  • Pesticides, mites, fungus, beekeeping methods ,malnutrition, low quality queens, hunger, various diseases, and immunodeficiencies are all being considered as possible causes of CCD.
  • Hence Option D is correct.
Q5. It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitation(s) 
of  developing countries in promoting this industry?
  1. Production of algae-based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.
  2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires a high level of expertise/technology until the construction is completed.
  3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation

  • Algae may be produced on land and in water. Hence Statement 1 is incorrect.
  • Selection of particular species for production and extraction of important co-products requires technological expertise. Hence Statement 2 is correct.
  • Some algae biodiesel ideas call for aquaculture-style operations in open ocean waters, which might have negative environmental consequences, particularly if biotech algae is employed. 
  • Large-scale facilities are required for economically sustainable manufacturing, which may generate environmental and social problems. Hence Statement 3 is correct.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Does the Dam Safety Bill infringe upon the federal structure? Critically examine. (10 Marks, 150 Words)[GS-2, Polity and Governance]
  2. What do you understand by Gold hallmarking?  What are its benefits? (10 Marks, 150 Words)[GS-2, Polity and Governance]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 05 Dec 2021:- Download PDF Here

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