17th Feb 2020 CNA:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related SOCIAL JUSTICE 1. Madhya Pradesh grapples with spiralling neonatal deaths INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. India inks 14 MoUs with Russia for defence support, spares C. GS 3 Related SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1. GISAT-1 (Geo Imaging Satellite) D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials POLITY AND GOVERNANCE 1. Perverse zeal: On Kafeel Khan arrest (NSA) 1. In political micro-targeting, the vulnerable Indian voter F. Tidbits 1. Kataeb Hezbollah, or Brigades of the Party of God 2. Reconsider ban on Army chief, Sri Lanka tells U.S. 3. Poll panel working on remote voting system G. Prelims Facts 1. Cyrtodactylus Urbanus 2. Goiter H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
- According to the National Health Mission (NHM), Madhya Pradesh has recorded the highest percentage of newborn deaths of 11.5% against the total admissions to government-run Sick Newborn Care Units (SNCUs) in the past three years (2017-19).
- The country’s average is 7%.
Factors responsible for deaths
- Staff crunch.
- Low community referrals.
- Absence of a special neonatal transport service to health centres.
- There is a dedicated service to transport pregnant women to hospitals from remote areas, there is none for neonates.
- Reliance on units in cities as last resort.
- The non-availability of enough units to cater to increasing institutional deliveries.
- Institutional deliveries in Madhya Pradesh has increased (80.8% as per the National Family Health Survey-4, 2015-2016), the neonatal care units are utilized optimally, but their numbers are not increasing proportionately.
- The health of children and mothers is not tracked in a systematic way by one platform, and services are often given randomly.
- According to the Sample Registration System, neonatal deaths in India mainly occur owing to premature births and low birth weight (35.9%), pneumonia (16.9%), birth asphyxia and birth trauma (9.9%), other non-communicable diseases (7.9%), diarrhoea (6.7%), congenital anomalies (4.6%) and infections (4.2%).
- Under the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, each country, including India, has aimed to bring down neonatal mortality to at least 12 per 1,000 live births. In 2018, it stood at 23 for India.
Read more on this at CNA dated Jan 13, 2020.
- In the 5th India Russia military industry conference held during the Defexpo 2020 in Lucknow, 14 MoUs were signed between Indian and Russian companies.
- Much of Indian military equipment is sourced from Russia. There is a lack of timely spares and support for such equipment. The MoU will address the issue of regular spares and support for Russian military equipment which are currently being used by the armed forces in India.
- It will cover joint ventures covering a range of equipment from modern T-90 tanks to legacy Pechora air defence systems (surface-to-air missile system).
- Under the proposed Indo-Russian Joint Venture ICT Center of Excellence, there are also agreements on emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, blockchain and robotics based on Russian technologies.
- One important MoU was signed between the Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) and the Almaz Antey of Russia for exploring the feasibility of establishing a joint venture in India for the production of various subsystems of “air defence missile systems like Tunguska, Kavadrat, the OSA-AKA, Pechora air defence system as well as the Shilka self-propelled air defence gun system”.
- The MoU also covered refurbishment and life extension of the missiles.
C. GS 3 Related
- It is an Indian Earth Observation (EO) satellite, to be placed in a geostationary orbit of around 36,000 km.
- With this satellite, which has high-resolution cameras, we can keep a constant watch on our borders, monitor any changes in the geographical condition of the country.
- The EO sats are apparently for benign uses such as land and agriculture watch.
- But their images also have a very important use for the military, for keeping an eye on the borders.
- ISRO making preparations to launch GISAT1 in March 2020.
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
- The Uttar Pradesh government has slapped the National Security Act (NSA) on Dr. Kafeel Khan of Gorakhpur for his alleged inflammatory and provocative comments against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) at Aligarh Muslim University recently.
National Security Act (NSA)
It is a stringent law that allows preventive detention for months, if authorities are satisfied that a person is a threat to national security or law and order. It was promulgated in 1980, by the Indira Gandhi government and its purpose is “to provide for preventive detention in certain cases and for matters connected therewith“.
As per the National Security Act, the grounds for preventive detention of a person include:
- Acting in any manner prejudicial to the defence of India, the relations of India with foreign powers, or the security of India.
- Regulating the continued presence of any foreigner in India or with a view to making arrangements for his expulsion from India.
- Preventing them from acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order or from acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community it is necessary so to do.
The order can be issued by the District Magistrate or a Commissioner of Police under their respective jurisdictions, but the detention should be reported to the State Government along with the grounds on which the order has been made.
How does it work?
- Under the National Security Act, an individual can be detained without a charge for up to 12 months; the state government needs to be intimated that a person has been detained under the NSA.
- A person detained under the National Security Act can be held for 10 days without being told the charges against them.
- The detained person can appeal before a high court advisory board but they are not allowed a lawyer during the trial.
- One must note that preventive detention was a tactic of the colonial order to suppress the activities of nationalists fighting for freedom.
- A detainee under preventive detention doesn’t enjoy any of the personal liberties granted by Articles 19 or 21 of the Indian Constitution.
- In the normal course, if a person is arrested, he or she is guaranteed certain basic rights.
- These include the right to be informed of the reason for the arrest. Section 50 of the Criminal Procedure Code (Cr.PC) mandates that the person arrested has to be informed of the grounds of arrest, and the right to bail.
- Sections 56 and 76 of the Cr. PC also provides that a person has to be produced before a court within 24 hours of arrest.
- Additionally, Article 22(1) of the Constitution says an arrested person cannot be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice. But none of these rights are available to a person detained under the NSA.
- The Act crushes dissenting voices and targets “political activists and trade unionists”.
- Even when providing the grounds for arrest, the government can withhold information which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose.
- It is being used by our democratic government against the people who fight for their right to live a life free from pollution, e.g.: anti-Sterlite protests in Tuticorin.
- Justice D.Y. Chandrachud of the Supreme Court had said that protest and criticism directed at government policy do not amount to being anti-national, officials should pause before they are seen as enablers of the excesses of an authoritarian dispensation.
- Thus, NSA should not be invoked in cases where sections of the IPC would suffice and given the bias in the political executive, the Supreme Court must step in and issue guidelines to check the NSA’s misuse.
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- It is an Iran-sponsored Shiite paramilitary group in Iraq.
- Kataeb Hezbollah is a part of Iraq’s Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), an umbrella organization of several Iraqi Shiite militias formed in 2014 to push back against the Sunni extremist group Islamic State (IS) following the collapse of the Iraqi army in 2014.
- Kataeb Hezbollah is seen by many Iraq observers as the central nervous system of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps Quds Force (IRGC-QF) in Iraq.
- The U.S. government has issued a travel ban on Sri Lanka’s army chief, saying there is “credible information of his involvement” in human rights violations during the final phase of Sri Lanka’s civil war.
- The army chief and his immediate family members are now prohibited from traveling to the U.S.
- Sri Lanka said the U.S. should reconsider its decision to refuse entry and warned that relations were being “unnecessarily complicated”.
- A new model of voting is being developed by the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IIT-M) for the Election Commission of India.
- It would be an Aadhaar-linked electronic voting system, which will enable electors to cast their votes from any part of the country — irrespective of where they are registered to vote — or even abroad.
- The IIT-M is developing a system for two-way remote voting in a controlled environment using blockchain technology.
- The model is likely to be presented before the Commission next month (March 2020).
G. Prelims Facts
- Guwahati has yielded a new species of lizard – the urban bent-toed gecko.
- The new species of lizard is zoologically named Cyrtodactylus urbanus.
- It is markedly different in molecular structure, blotch and colour from the Cyrtodactylus guwahatiensis, or the Guwahati bent-toed gecko.
- Though the urban bent-toed gecko falls within the khasiensis group, it differs from other members of this group in mitochondrial sequence data as well as aspects of morphology such as the number and arrangement of certain pores in males, the number of mid-ventral scales and colour pattern.
- This is the second Cyrtodactylus endemic to the Guwahati region, the fourth from Assam and the twelfth from Northeast India.
- It is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland.
- Iodine deficiency is known as the common cause of goiter.
- Goiter is more often due to the over- or underproduction of thyroid hormones or to nodules in the gland itself.
- Doctors remove large thyroid growths from Melghat tribals.
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Mukurthi National Park is in which state?
d) Tamil Nadu
Q2. Consider the following statement/s about Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):
- PVTGs are less developed among the tribal groups.
- Currently there are 75 tribals identified under the PVTG classification.
- They are spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (UT) in the country.
- Saharia and Asurs are included in the list.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1, 3 and 4 only
b) 2, 3 and 4 only
c) 1, 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Q3. Consider the following statements with respect to National Capital Territory of Delhi:
- The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Lt. Governor and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the Lt. Governor.
- Delhi and Puducherry are the two union territories to have a Separate High Court.
- The number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes is regulated by the Election Commission of India.
Which of the above statement/s is/are incorrect?
a) 2 only
b) 3 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
Q4. With reference to Korku Tribe, consider the following statements:
- Korku language is a member of the Munda language.
- The Korkus socially consume liquor made from the flowers of the Mahua tree.
- They are found in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3