TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS1 Related SOCIAL ISSUES 1. India most unsafe for women: poll ART AND CULTURE 1. Neanderthals hunted in bands, speared prey up close: study B. GS2 Related INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. After aid for defence buys, India gifts plane to Seychelles 2. Now, apply for passport on mobile from anywhere 3. ‘China proposed 2+1 format for India talks’ C. GS3 Related ECOLOGY 1. Belize’s reef, an underwater wonder, may be out of risk D. GS4 Related E. Editorials ECONOMY 1. Does India need a financial policy committee? F. Tidbits 1. SEBI set to open commodities to MFs 2. ‘Reforms in public sector banks have taken a back seat’ 3. USTR delegation, Indian officials to meet in a bid to iron out trade issues 4. ‘Reviving economy faces risks’ 5. Pakistan’s arid land transforms into green gold 6. Formalin-laced seafood seized in Kerala 7. Elephantine threat: Assam considering sedation, relocation of aggressive animals 8. Candidate may have to disclose health condition to contest poll 9. Russia-related sanctions to dominate 2+2 talks G. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions H. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS1 Related
- India has been ranked as the most dangerous country out of the world’s 10 worst countries for women, behind Afghanistan, Pakistan and Somalia, according to a poll conducted by the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
- The same poll conducted in 2011 had placed India at the fourth place.
- The findings are based on perceptions of experts on women’s issues.
- India was followed by Afghanistan, Syria, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Yemen, Nigeria and the U.S. — in that order.
- The organisation surveyed nearly 550 experts focused on women’s issues, asking them to rank countries based on a number of key issues.
- Respondents were asked to name the five most dangerous countries for women and then asked to name the worst country under six different categories.
- Respondents included academics, aid and development professionals, health workers, policy makers, NGO workers, journalists and social commentators.
- The world’s second most populous nation, with 1.3 billion people, ranked as the most dangerous on three of the topic questions — the risk of sexual violence and harassment against women, the danger women face from cultural, tribal and traditional practices, and the country where women are most in danger of human trafficking including forced labour, sex slavery and domestic servitude.
- The question on cultural practices targeting women included offences such as infanticide, acid attacks, female genital mutilation, child marriage, forced marriage, physical abuse or mutilation as a form of punishment.
- The other category in which India ranked the worst was sexual violence which comprised rape as a weapon of war, domestic rape, rape by a stranger, lack of access to justice in rape cases, sexual harassment and coercion into sex as a form of corruption.
NCW rejects survey
- The National Commission for Women rejected the survey and said the countries that have been ranked after India have women who are not even allowed to speak in public.
- NCW claimed that the sample size was small and could not be representative of the whole country.
- The Ministry of Women and Child Development said that the survey was not based on scientific findings.
- Neanderthals were capable of sophisticated, collective hunting strategies, according to an analysis of prehistoric animal remains from Germany that contradicts the enduring image of these early humans as knuckle-dragging brutes.
- The cut marks — or hunting lesions — on the bones of two 1,20,000-year-old deer provide the earliest smoking gun evidence such weapons were used to stalk and kill prey, according to a study by the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.
- Microscopic imaging and ballistics experiments reproducing the impact of the blows confirmed that at least one was delivered with a wooden spear at low velocity.
- This suggests that Neanderthals approached animals very closely and thrust, not threw, their spears at the animals, most likely from an underhand angle.
- Such a confrontational way of hunting required careful planning and concealment, and close cooperation between individual hunters.
- Neanderthals lived in Europe from about 300,000 years ago until they died out 30,000 years ago, overtaken by our species.
- It was long thought that these evolutionary cousins — modern Europeans and Asians have about 2% of Neanderthal DNA — were not smart enough to compete, and lacked symbolic culture, a trait supposedly unique to modern humans.
- But recent findings have revealed a species with more intelligence and savoir faire than suspected.
- They buried their dead in ritual fashion, created tools, and painted animal frescos on cave walls at least 64,000 years ago, 20,000 years before Homo sapiens arrived in Europe.
- Hominins — the term used to describe early human species, as well as our own — most likely started hunting with weapons more than half-a-million years ago.
- Wooden staves found in England and Germany dating back to 3,00,000 to 4,00,000 years are the oldest known spear-like implements likely used for killing prey.
- But there was no physical evidence as to their use, leaving scientists to speculate.
Neumark-Nord area findings
- The new find from the Neumark-Nord area of Germany removes that.
- Lake shore excavations from the same site since the 1980s have yielded tens of thousands of bones from large mammals, including red and fallow deer, horses and bovids.
- They have also turned up thousands of stone artefacts, attesting to a flourishing Neanderthal presence in what was a forest environment during an interglacial period 1,35,000 and 1,15,000 years ago.
- The old deer bones examined for the study were unearthed more than 20 years ago, but new technologies helped unlock their secrets: which injuries were lethal, what kind of weapon was used, and whether the spears were thrown from a distance or thrust from close up.
B. GS2 Related
- India gifted a Dornier maritime patrol aircraft to Seychelles, which will increase the island nation’s surveillance capabilities.
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a $100 million credit for Seychelles to buy military hardware from India.
- The Do-228 aircraft, built by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), was formally handed over by External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj to Seychelles President Danny Faure, who is on an official visit to India.
- The handing over of Do-228 to Seychelles reflects the government of India’s firm commitment to, and continued engagement in, further developing, consolidating and expanding the comprehensive multi-faceted cooperation between India and Seychelles.
- This is the second Dornier aircraft to be gifted by India to Seychelles; the first one was given in January 2013.
- The second aircraft was announced by Mr. Modi when he visited the island nation in March 2015, and the contract was signed in March 2017.
- The Dornier is equipped with a 360-degree surveillance radar, a forward-looking Infra-red system, satellite communication, a traffic collision and avoidance system and an enhanced ground proximity warning system, among others.
- The Do-228 can be used for EEZ monitoring, maritime surveillance, pollution monitoring and control, search and rescue and commuter services.
- The aircraft is expected to be flown at the 42nd Independence Day celebrations of Seychelles on June 29.
Training and support
- It will be operated by men of the Seychelles Air Force, who have been trained in its operation and maintenance.
- India has provided hands-on training to the pilots and technical staff from Seychelles and has extended full support to the teams involved in the maintenance and operation of the aircraft.
- The confusion still continues over the cooperation in the development of Assumption Island.
2. Now, apply for passport on mobile from anywhere
- External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj launched the mPassportSeva Mobile App along with a new scheme by which an applicant can apply for a passport from anywhere in the country.
- The mPassport Seva App, released on the occasion of the Sixth Passport Seva Divas, is available on Android and iOS platforms and will have the facilities to apply, pay and schedule appointments for passport services.
- The spirit of the Wuhan informal summit echoed strongly last week during the visit of Nepal Prime Minister K.P. Oli to Beijing, with China proposing a new dialogue mechanism that would also involve India.
- The Chinese side proposed to Mr. Oli a two-plus-one format for dialogue.
- This is different from a trilateral mechanism.
- Under the Chinese proposal, China and India can jointly conduct a dialogue with a third regional country.
- The Chinese initiative is not Nepal-specific and can be applied to other South Asian nations as well.
Meet with Xi
- During Mr. Oli’s visit, the Chinese side made its intent clear to engage deeply with Nepal and develop special ties with its Himalayan neighbour.
- Yet, Beijing also made it plain that China-Nepal ties would be docked with India’s shared interests as well.
- The Chinese leadership, in fact, made direct reference to the April Wuhan informal summit, which has begun to have a cascading impact on the region.
- Analysts say that the Nepali side has understood the big picture, appreciating that China is keen to build bridges with India, as Beijing’s friction with the U.S. under the Trump administration begins to mount.
- Besides, bringing India on board is essential for enhanced regional connectivity, including a trans-Himalayan corridor through Nepal, if President Xi’s Belt and Road Initiative is to achieve its full potential.
C. GS3 Related
- The Mesoamerican Reef, an underwater wonder world whose survival was considered to be at risk for years, may now be removed from UNESCO’s list of threatened World Heritage Sites, thanks to bold steps to save it by activists and the Belizean government.
- It came just in time for this week’s UNESCO meeting in Manama, Bahrain, where the UN body is due to consider removing the reef from its list of endangered heritage sites.
The Mesoamerican Reef
- The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS), also popularly known as the Great Mayan Reef or Great Maya Reef, is a marine region that stretches over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from Isla Contoy at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula down to Belize, Guatemala and the Bay Islands of Honduras.
- The reef system includes various protected areas and parks including the Belize Barrier Reef, Arrecifes de Cozumel National Park, Hol Chan Marine Reserve (Belize), Sian Ka’an biosphere reserve, and the Cayos Cochinos Marine Park.
- The reef system is home to more than 65 species of stony coral, 350 species of mollusk and more than 500 species of fish.
- There are numerous species that live in or around the reef system that are endangered or under some degree of protection, including the following: sea turtles (green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, leatherback turtle, and the hawksbill turtle), the queen conch, the West Indian manatee, the splendid toadfish, the American crocodile, the Morelet’s Crocodile, the Nassau grouper, elkhorn coral, and black coral.
- The reef system is home to one of the world’s largest populations of manatees, with an estimated 1,000 to 1,500 of them.
- Some northern areas of the reef system near Isla Contoy are home to the largest fish on the planet, the whale shark.
- Belize’s coastline, comprising the Belize Barrier Reef, is home to approximately 80% of MBRS.
- The Belize Barrier Reef is the largest barrier reef in the northern hemisphere and the second largest barrier reef in the world.
- The Belize Barrier Reef and Belize’s three offshore atolls, several hundred sand cays, mangrove forests, coastal lagoons and estuaries are collectively termed, the Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System.
- The Caribbean reef was named to the prestigious World Heritage List in 1996 but placed on endangered status in 2009 because of Belize’s plans to allow oil exploration nearby.
- The warning also encompassed the mangroves that help protect the reef and serve as a breeding ground for many of the hundreds of fish species that inhabit the area.
- That spurred activists into action. They organised an informal referendum in 2012, in which 96% of Belizeans voted against offshore oil exploration, choosing the reef over the potential economic gains for the country.
- As the threat to one of its top tourist attractions began to sink in, the Belizean government adopted a series of laws to protect the reef.
D. GS4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Why in news?
- Varied kinds of banking and finance problems seem to be spreading around the world. The outgoing New York Federal Reserve president William Dudley recently spoke about the London Inter-bank Offered Rate (Libor) fraud, the incoming president spoke about the need to improve banking culture, Bank of Italy officials are grappling with non-performing assets problems in their economy.
- And, of course, India’s own central bank governor Urjit Patel has highlighted that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) needs more powers to regulate ailing public sector banks.
- It might not be possible to prevent a financial crisis, but having such a committee would be a way to mitigate its damaging effects.
What is the financial policy committee?
- After the 2008 crisis, one major loophole that emerged was that financial regulation just looked at the risk of individual firms (microprudential) but failed to look at risks emerging collectively (macroprudential).
- So, individually, the banks might be giving a low quantum of housing loans, but collectively it could make a large number. If the housing sector collapses, the total risks in the banking system would lead to serious financial distress, as was seen in several countries in the aftermath of 2008.
- Then there are cross-linkages with other financial sub-sectors such as banking, mutual funds, and insurance, leading to the entire sector becoming adversely affected.
Why FPC is needed?
- In the UK, they decided to fix this loophole by instituting an FPC whose mandate was to look at the financial sector in a holistic manner and assess macroprudential risks.
- It is a 12-member committee with diverse representation from the Bank of England, Financial Conduct Authority, private sector and academia.
- The committee meets four times a year and releases its flagship financial stability report twice in those meetings.
- Just like India’s monetary policy committee sets interest rates, the FPC sets the countercyclical capital buffer rate, which basically tweaks the capital requirements for banks.
- If the FPC sees that risks could be high in the future, it asks banks to increase its capital ratio. Apart from this, it also analyses debt of households and firms and takes suitable measures.
A brief note
- Remarkably, before the 2008 crisis such committees were missing in all the major countries in the world. And even to the extent that such bodies have been set up today, they still differ significantly in their mandates, personnel and powers.”
- Interestingly, India already has some institutional arrangements that require reporting on the financial sector.
- It started with statistical tables related to banks in India, which were started by the British to capture information on failing banks in the country.
- Next was the Banking Regulation Act (1949) mandating that the RBI release an annual report, “Trend And Progress Of Banking In India”.
- The RBI also started the “Report On Currency And Finance”, which was not mandatory but nevertheless gave us an overview of developments in the financial sector.
- It also released a financial market outlook in its annual reports and Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments (discontinued in September 2014).
- In its monetary policy decisions, the RBI also releases a document on regulation developments, which contains proposed changes in banking regulations.
Measures that has been taken post 2008 crisis
- Post the 2008 crisis, further measures were taken. The government established a financial stability and development council (FSDC) to bring greater coordination among financial market regulators.
- The FSDC replaced the earlier high-level coordination committee on financial markets, which was more of an informal body.
- The FSDC was chaired by the Union finance minister, which led to friction between the ministry and regulators—but assurances from the former bridged the differences.
- In 2010, the RBI also started releasing its biannual “Financial Stability Report” (FSR), which has become the flagship report. From December 2014 onwards, RBI merged the “Trend And Progress Report” with the FSR.
Should we continue with the status quo or establish a new FPC?
- The former will not work given how financial markets and activities have become increasingly interconnected. It is only a matter of time before problems in Indian financial markets start to resemble those in the West.
- In fact, India is poised to have its own sub-prime moment in the near future.
- The FSDC, despite being a decent initiative, lacks diversity of opinions and is more of a bureaucratic exercise.
- The minutes of FSDC meetings are released via a press release but barely contain any information. The several RBI reports are scattered, though efforts have been made to streamline them.
- The alternative is to appoint a new FPC and reallocate the finance-related decisions, responsibilities and publications to it.
- The MPC can focus on macroeconomics and interest rates.
- This might invite criticism that one crucial lesson of the 2008 crisis was the integration of macroeconomics and finance, and going down this road would mean separating the two.
- But this is not the case here as the FPC and MPC would have common members like the RBI governor and deputy governors.
- It’s just that the FPC would have more specialists in the domain of finance just as the MPC has in macroeconomics and monetary economics.
- Finance has become heavily specialized and interconnected in recent years and warrants attention from specialists.
- We may not be able to prevent a future financial crisis but can at least try mitigating its damaging effects. FPC could be one of the ways to achieve this.
- The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is gearing up to usher the next set of reforms in the commodity market by allowing mutual funds to participate in the segment while also actively considering allowing derivatives on commodity indices.
- A SEBI committee is separately looking into the issue of physical settlement for commodity derivative contracts (settling of a trade by give and take of shares rather than cash).
- This comes two months after the regulator made it mandatory for stock derivatives to move to the physical settlement mechanism in a phased manner.
- The Commodity Derivatives Advisory Committee, which met recently, deliberated upon the issue of physical settlement in commodity derivatives and formed a subgroup to look into this specific matter.
- Based on the suggestions of the advisory committee, the regulator is soon expected to issue a consultation paper before framing the final guidelines.
- Physical settlement refers to the system where the contract on the day of expiry is settled through the delivery of the underlying commodity instead of the current practice of cash.
- This assumes significance as currently only about 1-2% of the total turnover of certain commodities is settled by way of physical delivery.
- The regulator, however, will have to first frame the warehousing guidelines for non-agriculture commodities before going ahead with physical settlement.
- In September 2016, SEBI introduced warehousing norms for agri-commodities to ensure that exchanges do not face any default risk while the settlement and delivery of the commodity is assured.
- Equity exchanges BSE and NSE, which plan to start commodity trading from October, have asked SEBI to allow co-location in the commodity derivatives segment as well.
- The Centre’s initiative to reform public sector banks, begun in 2015 with the Indradhanush programme, appears to have lost steam, Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI) deputy governor Viral Acharya said.
- In his foreword to the Financial Stability Report (a biannual publication), Mr. Acharya said while the Centre’s decision to frontload capital infusion in public sector banks should impart robustness, governance reforms and market capital-raising appear to have again taken the backseat at the PSBs.
- The FSR reflects the overall assessment on the stability of India’s financial system and its resilience to risks emanating from global and domestic factors. The Report also discusses issues relating to development and regulation of the financial sector.
- According to the RBI, if governance reforms are undertaken promptly it would not only improve the financial performance of the banking sector but also help reduce operational risks.
- Acharya said the central bank’s decision to put 11 under-capitalised banks under prompt corrective action (PCA) was aimed at preventing further deterioration and nursing them back to health.
- However, the resulting shift of flows of finance to non-bank sources needs to be monitored carefully.
- According to the Report, six state-run banks that are under the PCA framework may see their capital adequacy ratio drop below the minimum regulatory level of 9% by March 2019 if there is no further recapitalisation by the Centre.
- The gross NPA ratio of all commercial banks is likely to rise to 12.2% by March 2019 as compared with 11.6% in March 2018, under the baseline scenario of a macro stress test.
- A U.S. delegation will hold meetings with Commerce Ministry officials at the Joint Secretary level to discuss ways forward to resolve the escalating trade issues between the U.S. and India.
- The meetings come against the background of India’s recent notification of higher import tariffs for 29 goods originating in the U.S.
- However, the implementation date for these higher tariffs was set as August 4, leaving room for other solutions that could arise through dialogue.
- In addition, the notification left out the proposed increased tariffs on high-capacity motorcycles, such as those manufactured by Harley Davidson, tariffs on which were a sore point highlighted by U.S. President Donald Trump.
Key issues on agenda
- The two key issues on the agenda are India’s notified tariffs on U.S. imports, and duties on medical devices.
- The Reserve Bank of India has observed that the 7.7% GDP growth in the last quarter indicates the economy is well on the recovery track on the back of a sharp pick-up in gross fixed capital formation, but warned gathering headwinds including fiscal and current account challenges posed risks to the economic momentum.
- There has been an uptick in capacity utilisation with some industries such as steel closing the gap, the RBI said in its Financial Stability Report.
- The aggregate demand composition indicates a broad-based growth with revival of investment.
- At the same time, the conditions that had resulted in fiscal consolidation, moderation in inflation and a benign current account, were changing, warranting caution, the RBI said.
- Specifically, it warned that the progress achieved on fiscal consolidation could face challenges unless there was buoyancy in tax receipts and restraint on expenditure.
- The widening current account deficit — the shortfall widened in 2017-18 on the back of a wider trade deficit — was also a challenge as it impacted exporters’ cost-effective access to U.S. dollar credit.
- While aggregate export credit increased moderately between March and December 2017, it was critical to ensure that public sector banks had continued access to global money markets as they contributed about 45% of the export credit.
- Enhanced supply of export credit from private sector banks, foreign banks and non-banking financial companies could offset the potential adverse impact on trade credit.
- Externally, tightening liquidity conditions in developed markets were impacting emerging market currencies, bonds and capital flows.
- Firming commodity prices, evolving geopolitical developments and rising protectionist sentiments pose added risks.
- Around the region of Heroshah, previously arid hills are now covered with forest as far as the horizon.
- In northwestern Pakistan, hundreds of millions of trees have been planted to fight deforestation.
- Further north, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa’s Swat, many of the high valleys were denuded by the Pakistan Taliban during their reign from 2006 to 2009. Now they are covered in pine saplings.
- In 2015 and 2016, some 16,000 labourers planted more than 9,00,000 fast-growing eucalyptus trees at regular, geometric intervals in Heroshah — and the titanic task is just a fraction of the effort across the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
- The new trees will reinvigorate the area’s scenic beauty, act as a control against erosion, help mitigate climate change, decrease the chances of floods and increase the chances of precipitation.
- Residents also see them as an economic boost — which, officials hope, will deter them from cutting the new growth down to use as firewood in a region where electricity can be sparse.
Billion Tree Tsunami
- The Heroshah and Swat plantations are part of the “Billion Tree Tsunami”, a provincial government programme that has seen a total of 300 million trees of 42 different species planted across the province.
- A further 150 million plants were given to landowners, while strict forest regeneration measures have allowed the regrowth of 730 million trees — roughly 1.2 billion new trees in total.
- The Billion Tree Tsunami, which cost the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government $169 million, started in November 2014.
- They are still implementing maintenance safeguards such as fire protection, with the project due to be completed in June 2020.
- The Food Safety Department seized around 9,000 kg of formalin-laced seafood as part of ‘Operation Sagar Rani’, an ongoing crackdown.
- Meanwhile, people protested against the propaganda that fish sold in Kerala were laced with formalin.
- Formalin is a 37% aqueous (water) solution of formaldehyde, a pungent gas, with the chemical formula HCHO, used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and especially today as a fixative for histology (the study of tissues under the microscope).
- It is a toxic chemical used to preserve mortal remains and organs and is known to be a cancer-causing chemical.
- Formalin belongs to that rare group of poisons which are capable of producing death suddenly when swallowed.
- The introduction of formalin into the stomach is followed by the production of a gastritis which varies greatly in character.
- Assam wildlife officials are keen on replicating their Uttarakhand counterparts’ jumbo-relocation experiment for reducing man-elephant conflicts in western Assam.
- About half of 58 elephant corridors in the northeast, comprising 35% of the country’s, are in Assam. More than 15 of these corridors, used by an estimated 9,350 elephants, are under the Northeast Frontier Railway.
- Human habitations and barriers such as electric fences and trenches have blocked some of these corridors that once enabled movement of the herds.
- More worrying for wildlife officials and activists is the fact that conflicts are happening throughout the year, instead of winter months as in the past.
- The Brahmaputra Valley is very narrow and does not have space for so many elephants and humans to coexist without conflicts.
The Uttarakhand experiment
- One of the strategies discussed was translocation of the rogue loner and other troublemakers in the herds.
- An aggressive male near Rajaji was sedated and relocated 40 km away across a river. It eventually returned to its old haunts but was sobered by the displacement.
- That elephant has become less aggressive, maybe because of some kind of fright that it might be captured again and sent elsewhere.
- But the biggest challenge is finding suitable locations for translocation in Assam.
- The Centre informed the Madras High Court that the Law Commission was considering the possibility of making it a statutory obligation for those wanting to contest in elections to disclose full particulars regarding their health condition at the time of filing nominations.
- The voters must have a right to know the health condition of elected representatives (Jayalalitha died within an year of the election).
- The efficacy of imposing such a statutory obligation was questionable because a majority of voters cast their votes on the basis of political parties and their symbols rather than by weighing the credentials of individual candidates.
G. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam
Question 1. Which of the following is/are correctly matched?
- Doctrine of Judicial review – Article 13
- Abolition of untouchability – Article 18
- Protection against detention – Article 23
- Right to constitutional remedies – Article 32
- i) and iii) only
- ii) and iv) only
- i) and iv) only
- i), ii) and iii) only
Question 2. Consider the following statements regarding Objectives Resolution:
- The Objectives resolution was introduced by Jawahar Lal Nehru in the constituent
assembly on January 22, 1947.
- As per OR, the constituent assembly declared India as Independent Sovereign Republic.
- OR was later adopted as the preamble of Indian constitution without changes.
Which of the following statements are incorrect?
i) and ii) only
i) and iii) only
i), ii) and iii)
Question 3. Consider the following statements with respect to Indian states:
- After Aurangzeb’s death, Mulk Asaf Jah founded the independent kingdom of Bengal.
- Tipu Sultan introduced new calendar, new coinage system, new scales of weights and measures.
- Martanda Varma defeated the Dutch in Battle of Colachel (1741), resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar.
Which of the above statement/s is/are correct?
- i) only
- ii) and iii) only
- i) and iii) only
- All of the above
Question 4. Which of the following statements is incorrect with respect to the measures taken by the British in the aftermath of the revolt of 1857?
- The rule of East India Company was brought to an end.
- Both the native and European armies of British India were transformed.
- The Government of India Act 1858 transferred the ruling powers over India to the British Crown.
- Bahadur Shah was sentenced to death by a military commission.
H. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
The failure, inadequacy or injustice of state mechanisms have created space for Naxalite movements. In light of the above statement, discuss the complex causes of this extremist movement.
Apart from the mainstream Indian nationalism, there were a variety of alternative visions of nation represented by minority and marginal groups. Analyse the statement.
Also, check previous Daily News Analysis
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