18 June 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 18th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Birth, death registrations up in 2019
2. Rules regulating cable TV network amended
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. Assam seeks realignment of tracks through wetland
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HEALTH
1. A place for disruptive technology in India’s health sector
ECONOMY
1. Recovery takes more than reforms
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime
F. Prelims Facts
1. NBSA reprimands three TV channels
2. Chinese astronauts dock with new space station
3. U.S. to make Juneteenth a federal holiday
G. Tidbits
1. Students freed as court rejects police’s stand
2. Centre opens 14 disability early intervention centres
3. Shah launches helpline for cyber fraud
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

2. Rules regulating cable TV network amended

Context:

The Information and Broadcasting Ministry has amended the rules regulating cable television networks.

Details:

  • The amendment provides for a statutory mechanism for complaints raised by citizens regarding any content broadcast.
  • At present, there are over 900 TV channels that are required to comply with the Programme and Advertising Code laid down by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting under the Cable Television Network Rules.
  • The Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2021, provides for a three-level grievance redressal mechanism:
    • self-regulation by broadcasters
    • self-regulation by the self-regulating bodies of the broadcasters
    • oversight by an Inter-Departmental Committee at the level of the Centre.
  • A viewer could file a complaint directly to the broadcaster, who would have to respond within 15 days.
  • If the complainant was not satisfied with the response, the complaint could be escalated to the self-regulating bodies set up by TV channels, which should deal with the case in 60 days.
    • Such appeals would be dealt with by the Inter-Departmental Committee set up under the Oversight Mechanism.
    • The Committee would be headed by the Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
    • Its members would be from the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Home Ministry, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Ministry of External Affairs, Ministry of Defence, and representatives of other Ministries and organisations, including experts, as decided by the Centre.
  • This third tier was not only kept aside to hear the appeals, it could take up complaints that come directly to the Centre.

Category: ECONOMY

1. Recovery takes more than reforms

Background:

  • Growth estimates of the National Statistical Office show that after a steep contraction in the first quarter of 2020, growth accelerated steadily afterwards bringing hopes of an economic recovery.
  • However, the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted this economic recovery process. So as against the earlier predictions of a V-shaped economic recovery, India is more likely to witness a W-shaped economic recovery.
  • In this light, the article analyzes the government’s policies and their possible impact on the economic recovery process.

Government policy:

Emphasis on long term economic reforms:

  • The government has introduced a number of reforms in the economic sphere which it hopes will help the economy recover.
    • This includes the liberalization of the agricultural marketing sector, policies like the Production Linked Incentive scheme under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan, privatization of public sector units, lowering of corporate taxes, etc.
    • The reforms have helped remove restrictions on private sector activity and helped incentivize private participation in the economy.

Continued emphasis on fiscal consolidation:

  • After the announcement of the limited economic stimulus package during the first wave, the government reverted to fiscal consolidation or the paring down of the fiscal deficit. Accordingly, it raised its budgeted expenditure by less than 1% in the last Budget.

Concerns:

Doubts over the effectiveness of the reforms in the short term:

  • The article argues that the economic reforms though well-intended, may alone not be sufficient to induce the economic recovery process in India. The current economic situation and expectation of the state of the economy in the near future have failed to enthuse private sector investment.

Low public expenditure would impact demand generation:

  • The article expresses concerns that the macroeconomic pre-occupation with fiscal consolidation may not be the best policy in the current situation. There has been an increase in the unemployment rate and this could negatively impact demand in the economy.
  • The decision to limit public expenditure even as the economic recovery process is most likely to be hit by the second wave, will only negatively impact the economic recovery process.

Recommendations:

  • The government should adopt higher public expenditure as a way out of the current economic slump even if it leads to a higher than budgeted deficit or inflation.
    • India’s public debt is low by comparison with the OECD countries.
    • Inflation from economic expansion could be controlled through the increased availability of food resources.

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. A judicial pushback to a draconian legal regime

  • In light of the Delhi High Court granting bail to those accused in the 2020 Delhi riots case under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (“UAPA”) provisions, the article analyzes the shortcomings in the UAPA and its misuse. The article argues for a more balanced approach between civil rights and the imperatives of anti-terror laws in this regard and examines the responsibility of the judiciary in checking the misuse of the UAPA.
  • This issue has been dealt with previously in the following article:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis 16th June 2021

F. Prelims Facts

1. NBSA reprimands three TV channels

What’s in News?

The News Broadcasting Standards Authority (NBSA) acting on complaints filed by the Bengaluru-based Campaign Against Hate Speech (CAHS), has reprimanded three television channels over reports that targeted Tablighi Jamaat members during the pandemic in 2020.

  • The NBSA has imposed a fine of ₹1 lakh on the broadcaster payable to the News Broadcasters Association (NBA) and directed it to run an apology on-air for violating the Code of Ethics and Broadcasting Standards.

News Broadcasting Standards Authority (NBSA):
  • News Broadcasting Standards Authority is an independent body set up by the News Broadcasters Association (NBA).
  • Its task is to consider and adjudicate upon complaints about broadcasts.
  • It is empowered to warn, admonish, censure, express disapproval and fine the broadcaster a sum up to Rs. 1 lakh for violation of the Code.
    • The NBA has devised a Code of Ethics to regulate television content as a self-regulation mechanism.

2. Chinese astronauts dock with new space station

What’s in News?

  • The first group of Chinese astronauts have entered the country’s under-construction space station.

Details:

  • The Shenzhou-12 spaceship carried the three astronauts to Tianhe.
    • Tianhe is the main module of its first permanent space station by China.
  • This is a major step in China’s plans to have a fully functioning space station by 2022.
    • China’s first space station called Tiangong is set to be functional by the end of 2022 and is the second space station only after the International Space Station.
    • The Space Station China is building is called Tiangong which means “Heavenly Space”.

3. U.S. to make Juneteenth a federal holiday

What’s in News?

The U.S. is set to declare a federal holiday commemorating the end of slavery on June 19th or Juneteenth.

  • Juneteenth commemorates June 19, 1865, when Union soldiers brought the news of freedom to enslaved Black people in Galveston, Texas.
  • It is on this day that the enslaved Black people in Galveston learned that the Emancipation Proclamation had freed them.
  • This move is considered a major step forward in recognizing the wrongs of the past.

G. Tidbits

1. Students freed as court rejects police’s stand

Background:

The Delhi High Court granted bail to three students of Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia arrested under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) in connection with the northeast Delhi riots in 2020.

This topic has been covered in  June 16th, 2021 CNA.

Details:

  • A Delhi court has issued the release warrant for the student activists.
  • The High Court also ruled that no offence under the UAPA was made out against any of the three students.
  • The Delhi Police have moved the Supreme Court challenging the High Court verdict granting regular bail to the three students.

2. Centre opens 14 disability early intervention centres

What’s in News?

The Union Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry has launched 14 cross-disability early intervention centres across the country.

  • The centres would provide support to infants and young children at risk of or with disabilities.

Significance:

  • Early intervention can provide specialised support and services for infants and young children at-risk or with disability or developmental delay.
  • It can assist their families to help them in their overall development, well-being and participation in family and community life.

3. Shah launches helpline for cyber fraud

What’s in News?

Union Home Minister has launched a national helpline and its reporting platform for preventing financial loss due to cyber fraud.

  • The helpline has been made operational by the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre, in coordination with the Reserve Bank of India, all major banks, payment banks, wallets and online merchants.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which one of the following statements best describes Bonn Challenge?
  1. It is a global goal to bring 150 million hectares of degraded and deforested landscapes into restoration by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  2. The objective is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes.
  3. It is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).
  4. It aims to combat illicit wildlife trafficking by stimulating political will, improving law enforcement, and reducing consumer demand.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Bonn Challenge is a global goal to bring 150 million hectares of degraded and deforested landscapes into restoration by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030.
  • It was launched by the Government of Germany and IUCN.
  • The Bonn Challenge unites nations and regions in bringing landscapes into restoration, to halt and reverse the effects of land degradation. Also read: Desertification
Q2. Which of the following is/are related to the development of education in India?
  1. Fowler Committee
  2. Hartog Committee
  3. MacDonnell Commission
  4. Sadler Commission
  5. Wood’s Despatch

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  3. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
  4. 2, 4 and 5 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The Wood’s Despatch is considered as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India. In 1854, Charles Wood sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India. Through the despatch, he suggested that high schools must use anglo-vernacular medium and that English should be the medium for college-level education.
  • The Calcutta University Commission under the Chairmanship of the late Sir Michael Sadler was appointed in 1917. It looked into the question of secondary education.
  • Sir Philip Joseph Hartog committee was appointed by the British Indian government to survey the growth of education in India. The Hartog committee on education submitted its report in 1929.
  • The Fowler Committee (Indian Currency Committee) was a government committee appointed by the British Government in 1898 to examine the currency situation in India.
  • MacDonnell Commission (famine commission) was appointed by Lord Curzon in 1901 to formulate the general principles of dealing with famines.
Q3. A wetland can be considered internationally important if it meets which of the following 
criterion/critera?
  1. Contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.
  2. If it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.
  3. If it supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions
  4. If it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

A wetland can be considered internationally important under the Ramsar Convention if it meets one of the following criteria:

  1. Contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.
  2. If it supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.
  3. If it supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity of a particular biogeographic region.
  4. If it supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions.
  5. If it regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds.
  6. If it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.
  7. if it supports a significant proportion of indigenous fish subspecies, species or families, life-history stages, species interactions and/or populations that are representative of wetland benefits and/or values and thereby contributes to global biological diversity.
  8. If it is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend.
  9. If it regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of wetland-dependent non-avian animal species.
Q4. Consider the following statements about Miyazaki mangoes:
  1. They are grown primarily in South Korea.
  2. These mangoes are rich in antioxidant and contain beta-carotene and folic acid, which is great for people that need help with tired eyes.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • They are grown primarily in Miyazaki – a city in Japan.
  • These mangoes are rich in antioxidant and contain beta-carotene and folic acid, which is great for people that need help with tired eye
Q5. Which of the following is geographically closest to Great Nicobar? (UPSC 2017)
  1. Sumatra
  2. Borneo
  3. Java
  4. Sri Lanka
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Great Nicobar Islands Map

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. As India confronts the problem of ISIS returnees, should India accept them? Critically examine. (10 Marks, 150 Words) [GS-3, Security]
  2. Technology can play a critical role in transforming healthcare in India. Illustrate with examples. (10 Marks, 150 Words) [GS-2, Health]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 18th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*