08 May 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

8 May

CNA 08 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. SC seeks govt. view on making sports a right
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HEALTH
1. Food labelling
ECONOMY
1. What are India’s plans to avert a wheat crisis?
F. Prelims Facts
1. ‘Future wars will employ indigenous weapons’
2. COVID-induced break upsets the rhythms of tribal dancers in Odisha
3. Is La Nina a fair weather friend of our country?
G. Tidbits
1. Karnataka notifies 3.3 lakh hectares as deemed forest
2. UNSC jointly backs peace bid in Ukraine
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

Nut Graf
Sport as a fundamental right will contribute to the overall development of children. However, the government should evaluate all the subsequent domains like infrastructure availability, mid-day meal scheme, sports equipment, and availability of trainers etc to implement a practical and thoughtful approach towards physical literacy.
Nut Graf
The prevalence of NCDs among people has become a huge cause of concern for the policymakers and healthcare experts in the recent years, this has forced the FSSAI to come up with a rating system of food products that demands mandatory disclosure of nutrition information aimed at reducing sugar, salt, and fat intake which is considered as one of the best ways to prevent and control NCDs.

Category: ECONOMY

1. What are India’s plans to avert a wheat crisis?

Syllabus: Marketing of agricultural produce

Mains: Reasons for the drop in the procurement of wheat by the government and its wide-ranging implications.

Context:

India has reduced its wheat production estimates for the crop year ending June 2022

Details

  • India is the second-largest producer of wheat with China being the largest producer in the world.
  • The government has revised its wheat production projections from 111.32 to 105 million tonnes (MT).
  • The gap in the wheat production estimates is mainly caused due to the low yield of wheat in the current season due to prevailing extreme weather conditions.

Status of procurement of wheat

  • Wheat procurement in the current rabi marketing season (2022) has witnessed a drop as the Centre is expected to procure only 19.5 MT of wheat at the end of the season whereas in the last marketing year (2021) the government had procured 43.3 MT.
  • The reasons for the dip in the procurement by the government include
    • Lower production of wheat in the current season
    • Private traders have offered higher market prices to farmers compared to the Minimum Support Price (MSP) as there is an increase in the prices of wheat at the international level due to the conflict in Ukraine.
    • Farmers and traders have also reportedly held the stocks of wheat as they anticipate a further increase in the prices on account of lower production.

Reasons for the low production of wheat in India in the current season

  • The drop in the production of wheat is said to be due to the persistence of warm weather conditions in major wheat producing States like Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The anomalous heatwaves in the northern, western and central parts of India which peaked in March and April have caused significant loss to the yield.
  • Food security experts also attribute the lower yield of wheat to early summer in States, like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Impact of lower procurement of wheat

  • On Public Distribution System (PDS)
    • Wheat procurement is undertaken by the Food Corporation of India (FCI) at MSP to fulfill the demands under the Public Distribution System (PDS) and other welfare schemes like the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) 
    • With a dip in the procurement of wheat, the government has revised the grain allocation for various schemes.
    • The FCI plans to increase the allocation of rice to balance the shortage of wheat.
    • Experts feel that with the plans of distributing fortified rice to the PDS and surplus in rice stocks, India can manage the current situation.
  • On domestic prices
    • Concerns are being raised about the stability of prices in the country and the availability of wheat for domestic consumption.
    • Experts opine that the government must ensure that the prices for domestic consumption are not being influenced and determined by private players.
  • On farmers
    • Farmers are said to benefit from the situation as they are offered a higher price.
    • Also, new markets in countries like Israel, Egypt, Tanzania and Mozambique have opened up due to the conflict in Ukraine.
    • The current situation is expected to help the farmers get about 10%-15% extra price above MSP.
  • On export plans
    • Egypt and Turkey have approved the import of Indian wheat and India is also trying to seal new export deals with European countries. 
    • The Centre was predicted to export about 12 MT for 2022-23 and the government feels that despite the crop loss and revision of the output estimate, there would be no curbs on wheat exports
    • However, the market experts expect a dip in export projections earlier.

Trends in wheat exports worldwide

  • Experts predict a severe wheat shortage in the world post Russia’s invasion of Ukraine as Russia and Ukraine are the third and eighth largest producers of wheat in the world respectively.
  • Wheat producing countries like India are looking to increase their exports to cash in on the situation.
    • The revision of the estimates by India in the backdrop of war in Ukraine is expected to aggravate the already existing food insecurity.
  • The export estimate of Brazil is said to be three times its total last year. It has also found new markets in West Asian 
  • Argentina also witnessed an increase in exports despite lower production.

For information on the topic refer the following article:

UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis dated 3rd April 2022

Nut Graf
With a shortfall in the procurement of wheat in India amid global shortages and price rise fuelled by the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the government must focus on balancing the domestic supplies as well as the rising demand for exports.

F. Prelims Facts

1. ‘Future wars will employ indigenous weapons’

Syllabus: GS3: Defence and Internal Security: Security Challenges & their Management

Prelims: Acceptance of Necessity (AoN); Preliminary Service Quality Requirements (PSQRs)
Mains: Defence indigenisation: Push to Made in India

Context: Vice Chief of the Army Staff stressed the need to employ indigenous weapons.

Details:

  • The Vice Chief of the Army Staff told The that Acceptance of Necessity (AoN) in future almost all weapons and equipment will be given to the Indian industry.
    • An Acceptance of Necessity is accorded by the Defence Ministry for a particular weapon system or equipment at the beginning of the procurement process. Acceptance of Necessity for almost all weapons and equipment for the Indian Army will be given to the Indian industry.
  • The Army is also working on simplifying the Preliminary Service Quality Requirements (PSQRs) issued for equipment so that industry could meet the specifications.
    • Preliminary Service Quality Requirements (PSQRs) are the requirements that an equipment or weapon needs to meet.

Know more about DAP 2020

Significance  push to Made-in-India

  • The move is part of a government push to boost India’s fledgling defence industry and wean the country off its reliance on foreign weapons, which it is one of the world’s largest importers of. 
  • It will also fulfil Army’s requirement of surveillance equipment, particularly drones, as well as high-altitude mountaineering gear and clothing.

1. COVID-induced break upsets the rhythms of tribal dancers in Odisha

Syllabus: GS 1: Art and Culture: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Prelims: Dance Forms in Odisha

Context: This article talks about Covid-19 impact on tribal dances in Odisha.

Dance  Forms in Odisha

Dance Forms Description
Dhap dance The dhap dance is a traditional adivasi dance performed by Orissa’s tribes. It is performed during the Oriyas’ main festival, ‘Nuakhai.’ Dhap dance is performed by the Kondh tribe.
Dandari dance Dandahulia is a very famous and a popular dance of Borigumma, Jeypore regions. It is a popularregion based dance being danced by both the tribal and the non-tribal people. In Nawarangpur district and in some of its nearby areas, it is known as Dhandari.
Samuduni Dekha In the Juanga community in Keonjhar, there is a social tradition called Samuduni Dekha, in which the mother goes to stay with her married daughter and the community comes out in celebration to welcome her, often with song and dance. This ceremonial practice involving song and dance at the community level too received a jolt.
Other dance forms The dance forms of Bhatra, Paraja, Dongria Kondh, Kutia Kondh, Gond and Saura have also suffered due to COVID-19 protocol.

1. Is La Nina a fair weather friend of our country?

Syllabus: GS1: Geography: Important Geophysical phenomena and their location-changes in critical geographical features

Prelims: La Nina

Context: La Nina is being blamed for worsening the longest spell of heatwaves from March to April in north, west and Central India.

What is La Nina?

  • La Nina is a phenomenon associated with below normal sea surface temperatures in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean.
  • It makes the summer monsoon wetter and the winter colder unlike its evil twin, the El Nino, or a warming phenomenon that frequently dries up monsoon rains over India.
  • Formally known as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the La Nina-El Nino phenomenon follows a periodic pattern that roughly lasts three years.

How did La Nina contributed to Heatwaves in India?

  • During a La Nina winter, a north-south pressure pattern sets up over India and normally this influences the trade winds that bring rains to India. 
  • However, because the La Nina didn’t peak, the sea surface temperatures continued to be cold and this drove hot westerly winds and blasts of hot air from the Middle East into Pakistan and India.
  • While land temperatures over India begin rising in March, they are usually punctuated by western disturbances, or moisture from the Mediterranean region that falls as rain over north and western India. 
  • Partly due to La Nina, this temperature difference was absent and so the western disturbances that came to India were weak with hardly any rain.

Know more about the La Nina

G. Tidbits

1. Karnataka notifies 3.3 lakh hectares as deemed forest

  • The Karnataka Government notified 3.3 lakh hectares as deemed forest. 
  • The  expert committee had identified 9.94 lakh hectares as deemed forest land. 
  • As these lands included farm lands and revenue lands, the expert committee was reconstituted to have a fresh look at deemed forest. 
  • The Karnataka government can now allot the declassified land to persons who have been illegally cultivating on the government land. 
  • The declassified land can also be used for building hospitals, schools, and other public utility infrastructure.

2. UNSC jointly backs peace bid in Ukraine

  • The UN Security Council had issued a statement on the Ukraine conflict for the first time since the invasion by Russia.
  • UNSC expressed “deep concern” over the “maintenance of peace and security” in Ukraine and backed efforts to find a peaceful solution.
  • Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is a violation of its territorial integrity and of the Charter of the UN. At a separate Security Council event hosted by Russia, India stressed the path of diplomacy and dialogue for peace in Ukraine. 

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct? : (Level: Easy)
  1. The Supreme Court has had a fixed bench strength of 34 since the adoption of the Indian Constitution.
  2. The Constitution does not prescribe a minimum age for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court.
  3. The Supreme Court and High Court Judges hold office until he/she attain the age of 65.

Options:

    1. 1 and 2 only
    2. 2 and 3 only
    3. 2 only
    4. 1 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Article 124 of the Constitution of India, 1950 establishes the Supreme Court of India and regulates the appointment of judges. The framers of the Constitution had fixed the strength of the Supreme Court to one Chief Justice and seven other judges. The Parliament enacted the The Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act, 1956 (‘Act’) and has amended it several times to fix the maximum ceiling for the number of judges. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • As per Article 124, an Indian citizen who is below 65 years of age is eligible to be recommended for appointment as a judge of the SC. Thus, The Constitution does not prescribe a minimum age for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • As per the Constitution of India, Supreme Court judges retire at age of 65 while the age of retirement for High Court judges is 62 years.  Hence statement 3 is not correct.
Q2. Which of the following pairs of traditional sport and associated state is/are correctly Matched? (Level: Medium)
  1. Thang-Ta                Manipur
  2. Gatka                       Punjab
  3. Kalaripayattu         Kerala
  4. Silambam               Tamil Nadu

Options:

  1. 2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2,3 and 4 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Thang-Ta: Thang-ta is the popular Manipuri name for a set of armed and unarmed fighting techniques developed by the Meitei people of the state of Manipur.
  • Gatka: Gatka is one of the most popular and ancient martial art in the region of Punjab.
  • Kalaripayattu: Kalaripayattu is a martial art that originated as a style in Kerala during the 13th Century AD. Kalaripayattu means battlefield practices or training that takes place in an arena or a gymnasium of specific dimensions with mud flooring.
  • Silambam: Silambam is a traditional stick martial art from South India. Silambam is a weapon-based Indian martial art from Tamil Nadu.
  • Hence all the pairs are correct.
Q3. Which of the following statements is/are incorrect with respect to forex reserves? (Level: Medium)
  1. The four components of forex reserves are foreign currency assets, gold, special drawing rights and the reserve position in the International Monetary Fund with gold accounting for the largest share among the four components.
  2. The Monetary policy tightening and interest rate hikes by the U.S. Federal Reserve and
    depreciation of other currencies are some of the factors contributing to the current decrease in India’s foreign reserves.

Which of the given statements is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Forex reserves or foreign exchange reserves (FX reserves) are assets that are held by a nation’s central bank or monetary authority. 
  • Forex should only contain foreign banknotes, foreign treasury bills, foreign bank deposits, and long and short-term foreign government securities. But, in practice, it also contains gold reserves, IMF reserve positions, and SDRs, or special drawing rights. 
  • The foreign currency assets (FCA) is the largest component of a country’s foreign exchange reserves. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • The fall has been attributed to pressure on the Indian rupee as a result of the conflict in Ukraine, the continuing impact of the Covid pandemic, and other geopolitical developments. Other reasons are Monetary policy tightening and interest rate hikes by the U.S. Federal Reserve , depreciation of other currencies.  Hence statement 2 is correct.
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to Pangolins? (Level: Difficult)
  1. They are naturally distributed across the Continents of Asia, Africa and Australia.
  2. Being the most trafficked mammal in the world, all species of Pangolins are classified as critically endangered.
  3. They have large, protective keratin scales and are the only known mammals with this feature.

Which of the given statements is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The pangolins are unique mammals that live in Africa and Asia. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • There are eight species of pangolin, half of which live in Asia, and half in Africa. All species are either endangered, critically endangered, or vulnerable. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • Pangolins are best known for their overlapping scales that are soft and supple in childhood but become large and hard in adulthood. The main component of these scales is keratin, the same material that is found in human hair and nails. Hence statement 3 is correct.
Q5. With reference to Mughal India, what is/are the difference/differences between Jagirdar
and Zamindar? (Level: Difficult)
  1. Jagirdars were holders of land assignments in lieu of judicial and police duties, whereas Zamindars were holders of revenue rights without obligation to perform any duty other than revenue collection.
  2. Land assignments to Jagirdars were hereditary and revenue rights of Zamindars were not hereditary.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • In Mughal India, Jagirdars were assigned land in lieu of assigned empire duties such as police, judicial, and military; Zamindars, too, had to perform military duties and perform Khidmat such as rendering soldiers to fill the ranks of the royal army in times of need and offering gifts at the royal court under the Mansabdari system.
  • On the other hand, Zamindars had hereditary rights to revenue because their sway over rural society was overarching in all aspects, which rested on paternal and patronage application of rituals.
  • Hence both the statements are incorrect.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Wheat production is expected to fall on account of unusually warm weather conditions. Discuss the measures taken by the government to balance domestic supplies and rise in export demand? (10 Marks, 150 Words) (Economy)
  2. Front-of-pack nutrition labelling is widely considered to be a powerful and simple tool for discouraging consumption of processed foods. Comment. (10 Marks, 150 Words) (Health)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 08 May 2022:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*