# 26 May 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 26th May 2021:-

A. GS 1 Related
GEOGRAPHY
1. Bay of Bengal, fomenting Yaas, hotter than normal for season
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. New IT rules come into force today; will comply, says FB
2. CJI made ‘statement of law’ at CBI panel
3. Panel to define offences of speech, expression
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
EDUCATION
1. Still grappling with online classes
HEALTH
1. Slowing the pace of India’s mucormycosis threat
F. Prelims Facts
1. SEBI to appoint forensic auditors for listed firms
2. OSCs to be set to aid women survivors
3. One-state solution, the way forward in Palestine
G. Tidbits
1. ‘Use of cloud tech can help boost profits’
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


2. CJI made ‘statement of law’ at CBI panel

Context:

• The high level committee consisting of the Prime Minister, Chief Justice of India and the leader of the opposition in Lok sabha had recently convened to appoint a director to the Central Bureau of Investigation.
• Subodh Kumar Jaiswal, currently Director General of the Central Industrial Security Force, has been appointed as CBI Director.

Details:

• The Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana during the meeting had asked to avoid officers with less than six months left to retire for appointment as CBI Director.
• This opinion of the CJI should be viewed as just a “statement of law” flowing from the judiciary’s observations in many landmark cases.

Cases which guide appointment of director to CBI:

Vineet Narain judgment:

• As per the Vineet Narain judgment of 1998, the Director of CBI is to hold the post for not less than two years.
• He/she may not be transferred except with the previous consent of the high-level appointment committee.

2019 Supreme Court order:

• The six-month minimum residual tenure rule was introduced by the Supreme Court in a 2019 order.
• It had noted that recommendation for appointment to the post of Director General of Police by the Union Public Service Commission and preparation of panel should be purely on the basis of merit from officers who have a minimum residual tenure of six months, that is, officers who have at least six months of service prior to retirement.
• The apex court had reasoned that officers with only a few days of service may be in an insecure state of mind and this would not augur well for the functioning of the CBI which has jurisdiction to investigate offences pertaining to 69 Central laws, 18 State Acts and 231 offences in the IPC.

Laws which guide appointment of director of CBI:

Central Vigilance Commission Act, 2003:

• CBI works under the overall supervision of CVC in matters related to the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. The CVC act provides for a security of two year tenure in office for CBI Director.
• The CVC is also involved in the appointment of officers to the post about the level of SP and above except Director and also recommend the extension or curtailment of tenure of such officers in the DSPE (CBI) -An investigation wing of CBI.

3. Panel to define offences of speech, expression

Context:

• The Committee for Reforms in Criminal Laws is likely to propose a separate Section on “offences relating to speech and expression.”

Background:

Shreya Singhal v. Union of India:

• The Supreme Court in 2015 had scrapped Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 that provided punishment for sending offensive messages through communication services.

T.K. Viswanathan committee:

• In the backdrop of the SC judgment in the Shreya Singhal case, the central government had appointed a committee headed T.K. Viswanathan. This committee had recommended stricter laws for online “hate speech”.
• Following this the Home Ministry had written to the Law Commission to prepare a distinct law for online “hate speech”.

Committee for Reforms in Criminal Laws:

• The Committee for Reforms in Criminal Laws was constituted by Union Home Ministry to suggest reforms to the IPC framed in 1860 and the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)
• The committee is undertaking extensive consultations with relevant stakeholders and is expected to submit its report soon.
• The suggestions received by the Committee for Reforms in Criminal Laws will be examined by the Ministry before the changes are adopted.

Details:

• There is no clear definition of what constitutes a “hate speech” in the IPC.
• Legally speaking, for criminal Sections to be invoked against a speech it has to lead to violence or disturbance of law and order.
• The Bureau of Police Research and Development in its recently published manual has defined hate speech as a “language that denigrates, insults, threatens or targets an individual based on their identity and other traits (such as sexual orientation or disability or religion etc.).”
• Given the increasing threat posed by hate speech, the attempt to define hate speech is a welcome move.

1. Slowing the pace of India’s mucormycosis threat

This topic has been discussed previously in the following article:

UPSC Comprehensive News Analysis of 16th May 2021

F. Prelims Facts

1. SEBI to appoint forensic auditors for listed firms

• Markets regulator SEBI is looking to appoint auditors for conducting forensic audits of financial statements of listed companies as part of efforts to curb frauds.
• A forensic audit is an examination and evaluation of a firm’s or individual’s financial records. During a forensic audit, an auditor seeks to derive evidence that could potentially be used in court.
• A forensic audit is used to uncover criminal behavior such as fraud or embezzlement.

2. OSCs to be set to aid women survivors

• The Central government will set up One Stop Centres (OSCs) across 10 foreign missions to provide assistance to Indian women who are survivors of gender-based violence.
• One stop centre is a centrally sponsored scheme of Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD). It is intended to support women affected by violence, in private and public spaces, within the family, community and at the workplace.

3. One-state solution, the way forward in Palestine

Two state solution:

• The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River.
• There have been many diplomatic efforts to realize a two state solution, starting from the 1991 Madrid Conference. Then there was the 1993 Oslo Accords, the failed 2000 Camp David Summitand the Taba negotiations of 2001.

Context:

• In the light of the ongoing Israel and Hamas face off, there have been calls for a two state solution.

G. Tidbits

1. ‘Use of cloud tech can help boost profits’

• Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user. The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet.
• The use of cloud technology will help bring new solutions to market. It will also help leverage the benefits of artificial intelligence and automation.

Context:

• A survey by the Infosys Knowledge Institute has shown that the effective adoption of cloud technologies can help add to enterprise profits.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?
1. Tides originate in deep sea under impact of crustal movement.
2. They occur on the impact of gravity of moon and the sun.
3. Gravitational force and centrifugal force give rise to tides.

Options:

1. 1 only
2. 2 and 3 only
3. 1 and 3 only
4. 2 only

Explanation:

• Tsunami’s originate in deep sea under impact of crustal movement.
• Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun, and the rotation of the Earth. The rotation of the earth gives rise to centrifugal forces.
Q2. Which of the following is/are the importance of Mangroves?
1. Stabilize the coastal shores.
2. Enhance the natural recycling of nutrients.
3. Act as carbon sinks.
4. Reduce the turbidity of water.

Options:

1. 1 and 3 only
2. 2, 3 and 4 only
3. 1, 2, 3 and 4
4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

• Mangroves play a critical role in the environment. The help in the following ways.
• Stabilize the coastal shores and help limit coastal erosion.
• Enhance the natural recycling of nutrients.
• Act as carbon sinks and hence play a critical role in carbon cycle of the environment
• By reducing the rate of flow of water it helps reduce the turbidity of water.
Q3. Arrange the following Islands in Lakshadweep from North to South:
1. Kavaratti
2. Agatti
3. Minicoy
4. Amini

Options:

1. 4, 2, 1, 3
2. 4, 1, 2, 3
3. 1, 4, 2, 3
4. 3, 4, 2, 1

Explanation:

Q4. Which of the given statement/s is/are correct?
1. Ahimsa, Karma and Nirvana are the three ratnas of Buddhism.
2. Right observation, right determination and right livelihood are a part of Buddha’s Ashtangamarga.
3. Mahayana and Theravada are the two major sects of Buddhism created by Gautama Buddha.

Options:

1. 1 and 2 only
2. 2 only
3. 1, 2 and 3
4. None of the above

Explanation:

• The Tri-ratna or (three ratnas) of Buddhism comprises the Buddha, the dharma (doctrine, or teaching), and the sangha (the monastic order, or community).
• The eight elements of the eight fold path (Buddha’s Ashtangamarga) includes the following:
1. Right livelihood
2. Right observation
3. Right determination
4. Right action
5. Right meditation
6. Right exercise
7. Right speech
8. Right memory
• Buddhism was divided into two major sects (Mahayana and the Theravada) upon the death of Gautama Buddha. The division was not made by Buddha.
Q 5. ‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the
1. Production and use of solar energy by the households/consumers
2. Use of piped natural gas in the kitchens of households
3. Installation of CNG kits in motor-cars
4. Installation of water meters in urban households

Explanation:

• Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid.
• The provision for earning from solar energy production incentivizes consumers to install solar energy systems.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

1. Write a note on the new Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021. Examine the possible consequences with the non-compliance. (15 Marks, 250 Words)[GS-2, Polity and Governance]
2. COVID-19 is an opportunity to bridge the digital gap and reform the education system in India. Discuss.  (10 Marks, 150 Words)[GS-2, Education]