31 May 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 31 May 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Plea calls for NSA against hoarding
2. ‘Accused denied anticipatory bail can be given protection’
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMY
1. Govt. expands credit for oxygen units
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. China’s space station plans gather pace with cargo docking
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HEALTH
1. Only a global effort can tame COVID-19
F. Prelims Facts
1. Mrs. Besant and the Press Act
2. Banrawats
3. One-horned rhino
G. Tidbits
1. Monsoon onset over Kerala delayed: IMD
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

2. ‘Accused denied anticipatory bail can be given protection’

Context:

A Supreme Court judgment has said that an accused denied anticipatory bail can, in exceptional circumstances, still be given protection from immediate arrest if his sudden imprisonment by the State would push his personal affairs and family into crisis.

Read more on bail in India in the linked article.

Details:

  • The Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana observed that while dismissing the anticipatory bail plea, in exceptional cases where the accused is the sole breadwinner of the family, courts had the power to allow an accused to retain his/her personal liberty for some time in order to make arrangements for his/her family before surrendering in the trial court.
  • It was emphasised that the grant or rejection of bail in such cases had a direct bearing on the fundamental right to life and liberty of an individual.
  • Judges were urged to pay equal attention to the humane side of criminal law while hearing pleas for anticipatory bail.

What is the need?

  • The concept of anticipatory bail germinated from Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • According to Article 21 – Protection of Life and Personal Liberty: No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
  • At times, courts may need to look beyond the strict confines of the written text to secure complete justice. The High Courts and the Supreme Court have the powers to do so.
  • “Even when not inclined to grant anticipatory bail to an accused, there may be circumstances where the High Court is of the opinion that it is necessary to protect the person apprehending arrest for some time, due to exceptional circumstances, until they surrender before the trial court,” Justice Ramana wrote.

Conclusion:

  • It was emphasised that courts must not use this discretion to grant “judicial largesse” to accused persons.
  • Such an order [to grant protection from arrest despite denying anticipatory bail] must necessarily be narrowly tailored to protect the interests of the accused while taking into consideration the concerns of the investigating authority.

Category: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. China’s space station plans gather pace with cargo docking

Context:

The Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft was launched on a Long March-7 rocket and docked eight hours later with the space station’s first core module – Tianhe which means heavenly harmony.

Details:

  • The Tianzhou-2 cargo spacecraft has been described as the delivery guy for China’s space station.
    • Tianzhou-2 is the largest cargo spacecraft in service.
    • It carried a range of supplies. It is also carrying cargo and propellant that will replenish the supplies of the Tianhe module.
  • It will be followed by the launch of another cargo spacecraft, Tianzhou-3, and two manned missions, Shenzhou-12 and Shenzhou-13, in 2021, each carrying three astronauts who will spend several months in orbit.
  • The six missions to follow this year, including for the space station’s second and third modules, Wentian and Mengtian, will close to complete the construction of China’s first space station, expected to be finished in 2022.

Note:

  • The Space Station China is building is called Tiangong which means “Heavenly Space”.
  • The space station, which will be only the second after the International Space Station (ISS), has been designed with a lifespan of 10 years but could last 15 years, or until 2037.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Mrs. Besant and the Press Act

  • Young India was a weekly paper in English published by Mahatma Gandhi. He used Young India to spread his ideology and thoughts regarding the use of nonviolence in organising movements.
  • Other newspapers with which Mahatma Gandhi was involved include Harijan in English, Navjivan (Gujarati), Harijan Sevak in Hindi and Indian Opinion (from South Africa).

2. Banrawats

  • The Banrawats are a native endangered tribe originating and living in Uttarakhand.
  • They are also called Banrajis, Vanrawats, Vanrajis.
  • They are basically nomadic hunter-gatherers, but also work as agriculture and forest labourers.
  • They are mainly dependent on forests, and also practise shifting cultivation.
  • They speak a Tibeto-Burman language generally called “Rawat“.

3. One-horned rhino

  • The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the Indian rhino, greater one-horned rhinoceros or great Indian rhinoceros is a rhinoceros species native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • IUCN Red List – Vulnerable
  • Indian rhinos once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced its range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal.
  • Today, approximately 75% of the entire population of Greater One-horned Rhinoceros now occurs in India in three states viz, Assam, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • The Census of Rhinoceros is undertaken at the State-level by the respective State Governments periodically.

G. Tidbits

1. Monsoon onset over Kerala delayed: IMD

What’s in News?

According to the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the arrival of the southwest monsoon over Kerala has been delayed.

  • As per the latest meteorological indications, the south-westerly winds could strengthen further gradually from 1st June, resulting in likely enhancement in rainfall activity over Kerala.
    • Hence the monsoon onset over Kerala is likely to take place by 3rd June 2021.
  • According to Skymet, the monsoon had arrived as two of the three criteria as established by IMD had been met.

The criteria:

  • Rain-bearing westerlies being at a minimum depth and speed;
  • At least 60% of the available 14 stations in Kerala and coastal Karnataka reporting rainfall of 2.5 mm or more for two consecutive days after May 10; and
  • A certain degree of clouding, indicated by a parameter called ‘outgoing longwave radiation’ (OLR), being below 200 W/square metre.

Since 2005, the monsoon has arrived within the error margin of the IMD’s weather models, except in 2015.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1:  Consider the following statements regarding the National Security Act (NSA):
  1. The NSA is a preventive detention law that empowers only the Centre to detain a person to prevent him from acting in any manner prejudicial to national security.
  2. Under NSA, a person could be kept in the dark about the reasons for his arrest for up to five days.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • NSA is a preventive detention law.
  • The NSA empowers the Centre or a State government to detain a person to prevent him from acting in any manner prejudicial to national security.
  • Under NSA, a person could be kept in the dark about the reasons for his arrest for up to five days.
Q2: Under ‘The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013’ which of the following 
circumstances may amount to sexual harassment?
  1. implied or explicit promise of preferential treatment in her employment.
  2. humiliating treatment likely to affect her health or safety.
  3. implied or explicit threat about her present or future employment status.

Options:

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 1 & 2
  3. Only 2 & 3
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

Under ‘The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013, the following circumstances, among other circumstances, if it occurs or is present in relation to or connected with any act or behaviour of sexual harassment may amount to sexual harassment:

  • implied or explicit promise of preferential treatment in her employment; or
  • implied or explicit threat of detrimental treatment in her employment; or
  • implied or explicit threat about her present or future employment status; or
  • interference with her work or creating an intimidating or offensive or hostile work environment for her; or
  • humiliating treatment likely to affect her health or safety.
Q3: Consider the following statements:
  1. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) is a Public Sector entity under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
  2. IREDA reported an all-time high annual Profit Before Tax (PBT) in 2020-21.
  3. IREDA has been notified as a “Public Financial Institution” as well as a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 1 & 2
  3. Only 2 & 3
  4. All of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) is a Public Sector entity under the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
  • IREDA reported an all-time high annual Profit Before Tax (PBT) in 2020-21.
  • IREDA has been notified as a “Public Financial Institution” as well as a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC).
    • A public financial institution takes funds from customers and places them in financial assets. The most common financial assets include deposits, loans and bonds issued by or made by the public financial institution.
Q4: ‘Camp David Accords’ are related to which of the following countries?
  1. Israel and Egypt
  2. Israel and Saudi Arabia
  3. Israel and UAE
  4. Israel and Jordon
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin that normalised connections between Israel and Egypt in 1978.

Q5: Which of the following are not necessarily the consequences of the proclamation of 
the President's rule in a State? (UPSC 2017)
  1. Dissolution of the State Legislative Assembly
  2. Removal of the Council of Ministers in the State
  3. Dissolution of the local bodies

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • President’s rule is the suspension of state government and imposition of direct Union government rule in a state.
  • When the President’s Rule is imposed in a state, the President removes/dismisses the council of ministers in the state headed by the chief minister. The governor of the state carries on the administration of the state.
  • The President can either suspend or dissolve the Legislative assembly. Therefore, the dissolution of the state legislative assembly is not necessarily the consequence of the proclamation.
  • The President’s rule does not lead to the dissolution of local bodies.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Explain Transformational Leadership and Situational Leadership with the help of relevant examples. (10 Marks, 150 Words) (GS 4 Ethics)
  2. Growing vaccine nationalism in major vaccine producing countries will continue to have ripple effects on Covid-19. In the light of the statement, discuss the global approach to vaccine equity. (15 Marks, 250 Words) (GS 2 International Relations).

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 31 May 2021:- Download PDF Here

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