# 29 Nov 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 29 Nov 2021:-

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. India, Bangladesh to deepen ties as partners, says Goyal
C. GS 3 Related
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Understanding the new variant of the virus
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNAL SECURITY
1. How to win over Kashmiri youth
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. What the Omicron variant means for India
ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
1. COP26 pledges need a new climate of cooperation
F. Prelims Facts
1. Running business on Cloud
G. Tidbits
1. Cooperative model best suited for India, says Shah
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions


1. What the Omicron variant means for India

Context

Recently, cases of the new coronavirus variant Omicron are rising across much of Europe. This editorial highlights the danger of Omicron to India.

Background:

• Botswana recently discovered a novel version of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
• Early research reveals that the Omicron variation is responsible for the sharp increase in cases in South Africa’s Gauteng area.
• The Omicron variation has been found in 90% of the samples in this area.
• This variation has recently been designated as a ‘variant of concern’ by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Decline in COVID-19 Cases in India:

• Following the severe second wave in India, the sustained drop in COVID-19 cases has given rise to hope that a return to normalcy is on the horizon.
• The low number of cases in India now appears to be due to two variables.
• To begin with, seroprevalence tests show that a big percentage of the population has previously been exposed to the virus, offering some protection against further infections.
• Second, the vaccination programme is gaining ground. Approximately 44% of Indian people have been completely immunised, with 82% receiving at least one dose.

Concerns of Omicron Variant:

• This variation has a substantial number of mutations that should be taken seriously.
• They could make it possible for the new variation to bypass immunity gained from a previous infection or a vaccination.
• The development of the new variety is alarming and necessitates heightened caution.
• Epidemiologists are most concerned about the likelihood of a new, more transmissible version of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
• Its capacity to infect humans may greatly outpace that of the Delta version.
• There are no accurate estimates of how much more transmissible the Omicron variety is than prior viral strains.
• There is a larger possibility for breakthrough cases and subsequent transmission when novel variations may defy immunity gained via vaccination and past infections.
• Vaccines and therapies such as monoclonal antibodies may need to be modified if these mutations lead to higher immune evasion.
• The virus will continue to grow and change in a compromised immune system, altering its shape to evade immune reaction.

Way Forward: Addressing the Variant

• A strong immune response can ultimately eliminate the virus.
• It would make sense to prioritise the old and immunocompromised for a future increased dose.
• Epidemiologists all across the globe recognise that limiting travel can only provide limited respite.
• Vaccination is the greatest way to limit the number of cases.
• A single vaccination dose can significantly lower the chance of hospitalisation or a poor outcome; two doses are even better.
• However, due to present vaccine distribution disparity, this method of control is out of reach for the majority of people in low- and middle-income nations.
• While many wealthy nations are arranging for booster doses to protect their people, including children and the elderly, this approach comes at the expense of the rest of the globe.
• More than 60 nations, including South Africa, have vaccinated fewer than 25% of their population.
• These are the areas where a new, more transmissible variety has the most possibilities. Vaccine distribution equity is an important worldwide public health necessity, in addition to being the correct thing to do ethically and morally.
• India must increase supply to COVAX, an international cooperative aiming to vaccinate nations with limited access to vaccines, as well as persuade countries with excess supplies to do so.

Conclusion:

India and other nations should take note of South Africa’s example of making data available in real time for the world to examine and displaying the greatest levels of openness. At this time, appropriately planning for an uncertain future is critical.

1. COP26 pledges need a new climate of cooperation

Context

This editorial discusses the promises made at Glasgow COP26 and highlights the need for a new climate of cooperation.

Background of Glasgow COP26:

• Promises Made: Following the net zero objective, the United States and Europe launched the next most important climate goal, the Global Methane Pledge, which was signed by 104 nations and aims to reduce global methane emissions considerably by 2030.
• Noteworthy Absentee: There were some significant absentees when global leaders convened in Glasgow for the COP26. Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin, the leaders of the world’s second and fourth greatest carbon emitters, respectively, did not make it to Glasgow.

Concerns with India’s Commitments:

• India has set a deadline of 2070, which is two decades later than the original date of 2050.
• India, despite being the world’s third-largest emitter of methane, was not a signatory.
• Despite having the world’s biggest contiguous mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, India was not included in the vow to stop deforestation.

Significance and Potential of India in Pursuing Green Energy

• India has been a strong supporter of green energy as a means of lowering carbon emissions.
• Despite the fact that India has yet to make a large shift to renewable energy, with renewable energy accounting for only 22.5 percent of total electricity generation, the country has been at the forefront of the worldwide solar power movement.
• With France, the country co-founded the International Solar Association (ISA), an alliance of more than 120 nations dedicated to the promotion of solar energy.
• India, along with over 35 other countries, signed the Glasgow Breakthrough Agenda at this year’s COP26 to promote clean energy and make it more accessible, in order to boost India’s position on renewable energy, such as solar energy.

Challenges for India

Way Forward

• If powerful developing economies like India are to play a constructive role in combating climate change and achieving the net zero target, the developed North must strengthen its support by taking a shared responsibility.
• Assistance should be provided to India and LDCs in pursuing climate goals since they already face daunting challenges such as fighting poverty, providing basic health-care services, and ensuring access to education.
• People without food when they are hungry, medicine and doctors when they are sick, and schools for their children cannot be expected to understand or relate to the adversities of climate change being debated.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Running business on Cloud

Cloud Computing:

• Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources (both hardware and operating system), especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user.
• Large clouds often have functions distributed over multiple locations, each location being a data center. To provide quick responses especially when customers are present in multiple geographies, it is prudent to host the Cloud in multiple locations. This is called Edge computing.
• Cloud computing has two vital technologies: “virtualisation” which lets computer resources be shared through multiple virtual machines; and “network” that lets data requests flow to and from the datacentre or the Cloud through the Internet.
• There are public Clouds, private Clouds and hybrid Clouds.
• In public cloud systems, the same datacentre and network circuits are used by multiple customers while in private Cloud systems geographically distributed hardware are cordoned off virtually such that the computing resources are allotted only to one customer.
• In a hybrid Cloud, the extremely vital, private information is stored in the private Cloud while the less critical data is stored in the public Cloud.
• Cloud computing helps achieve economies of scale, which can help in reducing capital expenses. Cloud computing offers more computing power and more choice of software as per one’s demand.

G. Tidbits

1. Cooperative model best suited for India, says Shah

• Union Home and Cooperation Minister has described the cooperative model as the best suited model to achieve an all-encompassing and inclusive development in a huge country like India with a population of 130 crore and a predominant rural population. The Co-operative model is best suited for economic development in villages.
• The Minister called for replicating the successful cooperative model like the Amul dairy cooperatives in the domain of organic farming to encourage more farmers to adopt the practice.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements with regards to the Minimum Support Price:
1. It was first introduced in 1965 to encourage farmers to grow foodgrains.
2. At present, it covers 23 crops.
3. No MSP is offered for pulses in India.

Choose the correct statements:

1. 1 & 2 only
2. 2 & 3 only
3. 1 & 3 only
4. All of the above

Explanation:

• The MSP system was introduced in 1965 to encourage farmers to grow foodgrains.
• It was initially declared for paddy and wheat, but later extended to 23 crops, including 7 cereals (paddy, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, barley and ragi); 5 pulses (gram, tur, moong, urad, lentil); 7 oilseeds (groundnut, rapeseed-mustard, soyabean, seasmum, sunflower, safflower, nigerseed); and 4 commercial crops (copra, sugarcane, cotton and raw jute).
Q2. Consider the following statements with regards to Norovirus:
1. It is a group of viruses that leads to gastrointestinal illness.
2. Norovirus is resistant to many disinfectants and can heat up to 60°C.
3. The virus can also survive many common hand sanitisers.

Choose the correct statements:

1. 1 & 2 only
2. 2 & 3 only
3. 1 & 3 only
4. All of the above

Explanation:

• Norovirus is a group of viruses that leads to gastrointestinal illness. It is a very contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea.
• Norovirus is resistant to heat with some of the norovirus capable of withstanding temperatures up to 60 degree Celsius. They are also found to survive freezing low temperatures.
• Norovirus are resistant to many disinfectants. Hand sanitizers aren’t as effective against Norovirus as some of these viruses can also survive many common hand sanitizers.
Q3. The famous Yelagiri Hills lie in which of the following states?
2. Kerala
3. Karnataka
4. Telangana

Explanation:

• Yelagiri is a hill station in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. t is situated in the district of Vellore close to city Krishnagiri. Yelagiri has plenty of spectacular green valleys, rose-gardens, and orchards and is fast emerging as a popular tourist destination.
Q4. Consider the following statements with regards to Drugs Controller General of India:
1. The DCGI establishes standards for the manufacturing, sales, import, and distribution of drugs in India.
2. The DCGI also regulates medical and pharmaceutical devices.
3. DCGI is also responsible for the training of Drug Analysts deputed by State Drug Control Laboratories and other Institutions.

Choose the correct statements:

1. 1 & 2 only
2. 2 & 3 only
3. 1 & 3 only
4. All of the above

Explanation:

• Drugs Controller General of India is the head of department of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization of the Government of India responsible for approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, IV fluids, vaccines, and sera in India.
• Drugs Controller General of India, comes under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. DCGI also sets standards for manufacturing, sales, import, and distribution of drugs in India.
• The DCGI also regulates medical and pharmaceutical devices.
• DCGI is also responsible for the training of Drug Analysts deputed by State Drug Control Laboratories and other Institutions.
Q5. Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?
1. Manas National Park
2. Namdapha National Park
3. Neora Valley National Park
4. Valley of Flowers National Park