TABLE OF CONTENTS
Syllabus: GS 3, Environment.
Prelims: Ramsar Sites.
Context: India adds 11 more Ramsar Sites making the total number of sites 75 in 75th year of Independence.
- The new sites included in the Ramsar list can be divided into – Four sites in Tamil Nadu, Three in Odisha, Two in Jammu & Kashmir, and One each in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
- The Ramsar designation of these sites will help in the conservation and management of wetlands and wise use of their resources
- A total of 28 sites have been declared as Ramsar sites in 2022. Based on the date of designation mentioned on the Ramsar Certificate, the number is 19 for the year 2022 and 14 for the year 2021.
- Tampara Lake(Odisha):
- It is a freshwater lake in Odisha.
- Lake supports 46 species of fishes, 60 species of birds, 48 species of phytoplanktons, and seven species of terrestrial plants and macrophytes.
- It provides shelter to vulnerable species like Cyprinus carpio, common pochard (Aythya ferina), and river tern (Sterna aurantia)
2. Hirakud Reservoir(Odisha):
- It is the largest earthen reservoir in Odisha.
- The reservoir has a vast diversity of flora and fauna, including some with high conservation significance.
- It is a major habitation area for 54 species of fish.
3. Ansupa Lake(Odisha):
- It is a freshwater lake located in the Cuttack district of Odisha.
- It is an oxbow lake sculpted by River Mahanadi and has an area of 231 ha.
- It houses 61 species of fishes, 194 species of birds, and 26 species of mammals apart from 244 species of macrophytes.
- The wetland provides a safe shelter to three threatened bird species- Rynchops albicollis (EN), Sterna acuticauda (EN) and Sterna aurantia (VU) and three threatened fish species- Clarias magur (Clariidae) (EN), Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) (VU) and Wallago attu (VU).
4. Yashwant Sagar(Madhya Pradesh):
- It is an Important Bird Areas (IBA) in Indore.
- It is used a commercial scale for fish culture.
- It is a habitat for Sarus Crane in central India, which are categorized as Vulnerable.
- The backwaters of the lake has many shallow areas, which are conducive for waders and waterfowl.
- Owing to its shallow reed beds, the wetland is considered heaven to a large variety of winter migratory birds.
5. Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary(Tamil Nadu):
- It is situated in the Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu.
- It is a declared protected area since 1989 and a Bird Sanctuary, under the jurisdiction of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department.
- The sanctuary is an ideal breeding ground for winter migratory birds.
6. Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex(Tamil Nadu):
- It is part of the Suchindrum-Theroor Manakudi Conservation Reserve.
- It is an Important Bird Area lying at the southern tip of the Central Asian flyway of migratory birds.
- It was formed for birds’ nesting purposes and it attracts thousands of birds every year.
- Approximately 250 species of birds have been recorded in the area,out of which 53 are migratory, 12 endemic, and 4 threatened species.
7. Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary(Tamil Nadu):
- It is a man-made irrigation tank and shelter for migratory birds.
- Large concentrations of wintering waterfowl such as Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Garganey Anas querquedula were observed in tanks.
8. Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary(Tamil Nadu):
- It is a Protected area in the vicinity of Mudukulathur Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu.
- It is an important nesting site for several migratory species like heron that roost in the babul trees of the region. The migratory waterbirds arrives in October and include painted stork, white ibis, black ibis, little egret, and great egret.
9. Thane Creek(Maharashtra):
- Ulhas River is the largest source of freshwater for the creek.
- The area is a prominent part of the wetland complex of the Central Asian Flyway of the birds
- It has been declared as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
10. Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve(Jammu and Kashmir):
- It falls under the River Jhelum basin and is situated in the Baramulla district.
- It is categorized as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
- Due to the high rate of siltation, Hygam Wetland lost its wetland characteristics and in many regions changed its profile into a landmass. This has resulted in further loss of habitation for visiting migratory birds.
11. Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve(Jammu and Kashmir):
- The Reserve is in Srinagar.
- The majority of the area of the wetland dries up between September and March.
- The area has extensive reedbeds of Phragmites communis and Typha angustata, and rich growth of Nymphaea candida and N. stellata on open water. It serves as an abode to more than four lakh resident and migratory birds of at least 21 species.
- The wetland is an important breeding ground for several species of waterbirds.
Read previous PIB here.
August 13th, 2022, PIB:- Download PDF Here