# NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6: Thermodynamics

## NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 – Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics can be found on this page. Here, students can access detailed and explanative solutions according to the latest CBSE Syllabus 2022-23 for all the questions present in the NCERT textbook. This chapter contains various subdivisions like closed, open and isolated systems, isothermal and free expansion of gas, internal energy as a state function etc. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry contain a brief description of all these important topics to enable a high conceptual knowledge among students.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6: Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics” is the sixth chapter in the NCERT Class 11 Chemistry textbook. Thermodynamics is a branch of Science that deals with the relationship between heat and other forms of energy. A part of the universe where observations are made is called system. The surrounding of a system is the part of the universe that does not contain the system. Based on the exchange of energy and matter, thermodynamic systems can be classified into 3 types: closed system, open system and an isolated system.

In a closed system, only energy can be exchanged with the surrounding. In open system, energy as well as matter can be exchanged with the surrounding. In an isolated system, both energy and matter cannot be exchanged with the surrounding.

### Subtopics included in NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics

1. Thermodynamic Terms
• The System and the Surroundings
• Types of Thermodynamic Systems
• State of the System
• Internal Energy as a State Function
2. Applications
• Work
• Enthalpy, H
3. Measurement Of ΔU And ΔH: Calorimetry
4. Enthalpy Change and Reaction Enthalpy
5. Enthalpies For Different Types Of Reactions
6. Spontaneity
7. Gibbs Energy Change And Equilibrium

## Access the answers of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6

Q-1: Choose the correct answer. A thermodynamic state function is a quantity

(i) used to determine heat changes
(ii) whose value is independent of path
(iii) used to determine pressure volume work
(iv) whose value depends on temperature only

Ans:

(ii) A quantity which is independent of path.

Reason:

Functions like pressure, volume and temperature depends on the state of the system only and not on the path.

Q-2: For the process to occur under adiabatic conditions, the correct condition is:
(i) ∆T = 0   (ii) ∆p = 0
(iii) q = 0   (iv) w = 0

Ans:

(iii) q = 0

Reason:

For an adiabatic process heat transfer is zero, i.e. q = 0.

Q-3: The enthalpies of all elements in their standard states are:

(i) Unity   (ii) Zero

(iii) < 0     (iv) Different for every element

Ans:

(ii) Zero

Q-4: ∆U0 of combustion of methane is – X kJ mol–1. The value of ∆H0 is

(i) = $\Delta U^{\Theta }$

(ii) > $\Delta U^{\Theta }$

(iii) < $\Delta U^{\Theta }$

(iv) 0

Ans:

(iii) < $\Delta U^{\Theta }$

Reason:

$\Delta H^{\Theta } = \Delta U^{\Theta } + \Delta n_{g}RT$ ; $\Delta U^{\Theta }$ = – Y $kJ mol^{-1}$, $\Delta H^{\Theta } = ( – Y) + \Delta n_{g}RT \Rightarrow \Delta H^{\Theta } < \Delta U^{\Theta }$

Q-5: The enthalpy of combustion of methane, graphite and dihydrogen at 298 K are, –890.3 kJ mol–1 –393.5 kJ mol–1, and –285.8 kJ mol–1 respectively. Enthalpy of formation of CH4(g) will be

(i) -74.8 kJ$mol^{-1}$

(ii) -52.27 kJ$mol^{-1}$

(iii) +74.8 kJ$mol^{-1}$

(iv) +52 kJ$mol^{-1}$

Ans:

(i) -74.8kJ$mol^{-1}$

1. CH4(g)  + 2O2(g) $\rightarrow$ CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

$\Delta H = -890.3kJmol^{-1}$

2. C(s) + O2(g)  $\rightarrow$ CO2(g)

$\Delta H = -393.5kJmol^{-1}$

3. 2H2(g) + O2(g) $\rightarrow$ 2H2O(g)

$\Delta H = -285.8kJmol^{-1}$

C(s) + 2H2(g) $\rightarrow$ CH4(g)

$\Delta _{f}H_{CH_{4}}$  = $\Delta _{c}H_{c}$ + $2\Delta _{f}H_{H_{2}}$$\Delta _{f}H_{CO_{2}}$

= [ -393.5 +2(-285.8) – (-890.3)] kJ$mol^{-1}$

= -74.8kJ$mol^{-1}$

Q-6: A reaction, A + B → C + D + q is found to have a positive entropy change. The reaction will be

(i) possible at high temperature

(ii) possible only at low temperature

(iii) not possible at any temperature

(iv) possible at any temperature

Ans:

(iv) possible at any temperature

$\Delta G$ should be –ve, for spontaneous reaction to occur $\Delta G$ = $\Delta H$ – T$\Delta S$

As per given in question,

$\Delta H$ is –ve ( as heat is evolved) $\Delta S$ is +ve

Therefore, $\Delta G$ is negative

So, the reaction will be possible at any temperature.

Q-7: In a process, 701 J of heat is absorbed by a system and 394 J of work is done by the system. What is the change in internal energy for the process?

Ans:

As per Thermodynamics 1st law,

$\Delta U$ = q + W(i); $\Delta U$ internal energy = heat

W = work done

W = -594 J (work done by system)

q = +701 J (+ve as heat is absorbed)

Now,

$\Delta U$ = 701 + (-594) $\Delta U$ = 307 J

Q-8: The reaction of cyanamide, NH2CN(s), with dioxygen was carried out in a bomb calorimeter, and ∆U was found to be –742.7 kJ mol–1 at 298 K. Calculate enthalpy change for the reaction at 298 K.

NH2CN(g) + 3/2 O2(g) N2(g) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Ans:

$\Delta H$ is given by, $\Delta H = \Delta U + \Delta n_{g}RT$………………(1) $\Delta n_{g}$ = change in number of moles $\Delta U$ = change in internal energy

Here,

$\Delta n_{g} = \sum n_{g}(product) – \sum n_{g}(reactant)$

= (2 – 1.5) moles

$\Delta n_{g}$ = 0.5 moles

Here,

T =298K

$\Delta U$ = -742.7 $kJmol^{-1}$

R  = $8.314\times 10^{-3}kJmol^{-1}K^{-1}$

Now, from (1)

$\Delta H = (-742.7 kJmol^{-1}) + (0.5mol)(298K)( 8.314\times 10^{-3}kJmol^{-1}K^{-1})$

= -742.7 + 1.2

$\Delta H$ = -741.5 $kJmol^{-1}$

Q-9: Calculate the number of kJ of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 60.0 g of aluminium from 35°C to 55°C. Molar heat capacity of Al is 24 J mol–1 K–1.

Ans:

Expression of heat(q),

$q = mCP\Delta T$;………………….(a) $\Delta T$ = Change in temperature

c = molar heat capacity

m = mass of substance

From (a)

$q = ( \frac{60}{27}mol )(24mol^{-1}K^{-1})(20K)$

q = 1066.67 J = 1.067 KJ

Q-10: Calculate the enthalpy change on freezing of 1.0 mol of water at 10.0°C to ice at –10.0°C. ∆fusH = 6.03 kJ mol–1 at 0°C.

$C_{p}[H_{2}O_{(l)}] = 75.3 J\;mol^{-1}K^{-1}$

$C_{p}[H_{2}O_{(s)}] = 36.8 J\;mol^{-1}K^{-1}$

Ans:

$\Delta H_{total}$ = sum of the changes given below:

(a) Energy change that occurs during transformation of 1 mole of water from $10^{\circ}C\;to\;0^{\circ}C$.

(b) Energy change that occurs during transformation of 1 mole of water at $0^{\circ}C$  to  1 mole of ice at $0^{\circ}C$.

(c) Energy change that occurs during transformation of 1 mole of ice from $0^{\circ}C\;to\;(-10)^{\circ}C$.

$\Delta H_{total} = C_{p}[H_{2}OCl]\Delta T + \Delta H_{freezing} C_{p}[H_{2}O_{l}]\Delta T$

= (75.3 $J mol^{-1}K^{-1}$)(0 – 10)K + (-6.03*1000 $J mol^{-1}$(-10-0)K

= -753 $J mol^{-1}$ – 6030$J mol^{-1}$ – 368$J mol^{-1}$

= -7151 $J mol^{-1}$

= -7.151$kJ mol^{-1}$

Thus, the required change in enthalpy for given transformation is -7.151$kJ mol^{-1}$.

Q-11 Enthalpy of combustion of carbon to CO2 is –393.5 kJ mol–1. Calculate the heat released upon formation of 35.2 g of CO2 from carbon and dioxygen gas.

Ans:

Formation of carbon dioxide from di-oxygen and carbon gas is given as:

C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g); $\Delta _{f}H$ = -393.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$

1 mole CO2 = 44g

Heat released during formation of 44g CO2 = -393.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$

Therefore, heat released during formation of 35.2g of CO2  can be calculated as

= $\frac{-393.5kJmol^{-1}}{44g}\times 35.2g$

= -314.8 $kJ mol^{-1}$

Q-12: Enthalpies of formation of CO (g), CO2 (g), N2(g) and N2O4(g) are –110, – 393, 81 and 9.7 kJ mol–1 respectively. Find the value of ∆rH for the reaction:

N2O4(g) + 3CO(g)  N2O(g) + 3 CO2(g)

Ans:

$\Delta _{r}H$ for any reaction is defined as the fifference between $\Delta _{f}H$ value of products and $\Delta _{f}H$ value of reactants.”

$\Delta _{r}H = \sum \Delta _{f}H (products) – \sum \Delta _{f}H (reactants)$

Now, for

N2O4(g) + 3CO(g) à  N2O(g) + 3 CO2(g)

$\Delta _{r}H = [(\Delta _{f}H(N_{2}O) + (3\Delta _{f}H(CO_{2})) – (\Delta _{f}H(N_{2}O_{4}) + 3\Delta _{f}H(CO))]$

Now, substituting the given values in the above equation, we get:

$\Delta _{r}H$ = [{81$kJ mol^{-1}$ + 3(-393) $kJ mol^{-1}$} – {9.7$kJ mol^{-1}$ + 3(-110) $kJ mol^{-1}$}] $\Delta _{r}H$ = -777.7 $kJ mol^{-1}$

Q-13: Given N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g) ; ∆rH0= –92.4 kJ mol–1
What is the standard enthalpy of formation of NH3 gas?

Ans:

“Standard enthalpy of formation of a compound is the enthalpy that takes place during the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard form, from its constituent elements in their standard state.”

Dividing the chemical equation given in the question by 2, we get

(0.5)N2(g) + (1.5)H2(g) → 2NH3(g)

Therefore, Standard Enthalpy for formation of ammonia gas

= (0.5) $\Delta _{r}H^{\Theta }$

= (0.5)(-92.4$kJ mol^{-1}$)

= -46.2$kJ mol^{-1}$

Q-14: Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of CH3OH(l) from the following data:

CH3OH(l) + 3/2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l); $\Delta _{r}H^{\Theta }$ = -726 $kJ mol^{-1}$

C(g) + O2(g) CO2(g); $\Delta _{c}H_{\Theta }$ = -393 $kJ mol^{-1}$

H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l); $\Delta _{f}H^{\Theta }$ = -286 $kJ mol^{-1}$

Ans:

C(s) + 2H2O(g) + (1/2)O2(g) → CH3OH(l) …………………………(i)

CH3OH(l) can be obtained as follows,

$\Delta _{f}H_{\Theta }$ [CH3OH(l)] = $\Delta _{c}H_{\Theta }$

2$\Delta _{f}H_{\Theta }$$\Delta _{r}H_{\Theta }$

= (-393 $kJ mol^{-1}$) +2(-286$kJ mol^{-1}$) – (-726$kJ mol^{-1}$)

= (-393 – 572 + 726) $kJ mol^{-1}$

= -239$kJ mol^{-1}$

Thus, $\Delta _{f}H_{\Theta }$ [CH3OH(l)] = -239$kJ mol^{-1}$

Q-15: Calculate the enthalpy change for the process

CCl4(g) C(g) + 4Cl(g) and determine the value of bond enthalpy for C-Cl in CCl4(g).

$\Delta _{vap}H^{\Theta }$ (CCl4) = 30.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$.

$\Delta _{f}H^{\Theta }$ (CCl4) = -135.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$.

$\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }$ (C) = 715 $kJ mol^{-1}$,

$\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }$  is a enthalpy of atomisation

$\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }$ (Cl2) = 242 $kJ mol^{-1}$.

Ans:

“ The chemical equations implying to the given values of enthalpies” are:

(1) CCl4(l) à CCl4(g) ; $\Delta _{vap}H^{\Theta }$ = 30.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$

(2) C(s) à C(g) $\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }$ = 715 $kJ mol^{-1}$

(3) Cl2(g) à 2Cl(g) ; $\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }$ = 242 $kJ mol^{-1}$

(4) C(g) + 4Cl(g) à CCl4(g); $\Delta _{f}H^{\Theta }$ = -135.5 $kJ mol^{-1}$ $\Delta H$ for the process CCl4(g) à C(g) + 4Cl(g) can be measured as:

$\Delta H = \Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }(C) + 2\Delta _{a}H^{\Theta }(Cl_{2}) – \Delta _{vap}H^{\Theta } – \Delta _{f}H$

= (715$kJ mol^{-1}$) + 2($kJ mol^{-1}$) – (30.5$kJ mol^{-1}$) – (-135.5$kJ mol^{-1}$)

Therefore, $H = 1304kJmol^{-1}$

The value of bond enthalpy for C-Cl in CCl4(g)

= $\frac{1304}{4}kJmol^{-1}$

= 326 $kJ mol^{-1}$

Q-16: For an isolated system, ∆U = 0, what will be ∆S?

Ans:

$\Delta U$ is positive ; $\Delta U$ > 0.

As, $\Delta U$ = 0 then$\Delta S$ will be +ve, as a result reaction will be spontaneous.

Q-17: For the reaction at 298K,

2A + B  C

$\Delta H$ = 400 $kJ mol^{-1}$

$\Delta H$ = 0.2 $kJ mol^{-1}K^{-1}$

At what temperature will the reaction become spontaneous considering $\Delta S$ and $\Delta H$ to be constant over the temperature range?

Ans:

Now,

$\Delta G = \Delta H – T\Delta S$

Let, the given reaction is at equilibrium, then $\Delta T$ will be:

T = $(\Delta H – \Delta G)\frac{1}{\Delta S}$ $\frac{\Delta H}{\Delta S}$; ($\Delta G$ = 0 at equilibrium)

= 400$kJ mol^{-1}$/0.2$kJ mol^{-1}K^{-1}$

Therefore, T = 2000K

Thus, for the spontaneous, $\Delta G$ must be –ve and T > 2000K.

Q-18: For the reaction

2Cl(g) Cl2(g)

What are the signs of $\Delta S$ and $\Delta H$?

Ans:

$\Delta S$ and $\Delta H$ are having negative sign.

The reaction given in the question represents the formation of Cl molecule from Cl atoms. As the formation of bond takes place in the given reaction. So, energy is released. So,  $\Delta H$ is negative.

Also, 2 moles of Chlorine atoms are having more randomness than 1 mole of chlorine molecule. So, the spontaneity is decreased. Thus, $\Delta S$ is negative.

Q-19: For the reaction

2A(g) + B(g) 2D(g)

$\Delta U^{\Theta }$ = -10.5 kJ and $\Delta S^{\Theta }$ = -44.1$JK^{-1}$

Calculate $\Delta G^{\Theta }$ for the reaction, and predict whether the reaction may occur spontaneously.

Ans:

2A(g) + B(g) → 2D(g)

$\Delta n_{g}$ = 2 – 3

= -1 mole

Putting value of $\Delta U^{\Theta }$ in expression of $\Delta H$:

$\Delta H^{\Theta } = \Delta U^{\Theta } + \Delta n_{g}RT$

= (-10.5KJ) – (-1)( $8.314\times 10^{-3}kJK^{-1}mol^{-1}$)(298K)

= -10.5kJ -2.48kJ

$\Delta H^{\Theta }$ = -12.98kJ

Putting value of $\Delta S^{\Theta }$ and $\Delta H^{\Theta }$ in expression of $\Delta G^{\Theta }$:

$\Delta G^{\Theta } = \Delta H^{\Theta } – T\Delta S^{\Theta }$

= -12.98kJ –(298K)(-44.1$JK^{-1}$)

= -12.98kJ +13.14kJ

$\Delta G^{\Theta }$ = 0.16kJ

As, $\Delta G^{\Theta }$ is positive, the reaction won’t occur spontaneously.

Q-20: The equilibrium constant for a reaction is 10. What will be the value of ∆G0? R = 8.314 JK–1 mol–1, T = 300 K.

Ans:

Now,

$\Delta G^{\Theta }$ = $-2.303RT\ln k$

= (2.303)( $8.314\times kJK^{-1}mol^{-1}$)(300K) $\log 10$

= -5527$Jmol^{-1}$

= -5.527$kJmol^{-1}$

Q-21: Comment on the thermodynamic stability of NO(g), given,

(1/2)N2(g) + (1/2)O2(g) → NO(g); $\Delta _{r}H^{\Theta } = 90kJmol^{-1}$

NO(g) + (1/2)O2(g) → NO2(g); $\Delta _{r}H^{\Theta } = -74kJmol^{-1}$

Ans:

The +ve value of $\Delta _{r}H$ represents that during NO(g) formation from O2 and N2,  heat is absorbed. The obtained product, NO(g) is having more energy than reactants. Thus, NO(g) is unstable.

The -ve value of $\Delta _{r}H$ represents that during NO2(g) formation from O2(g) and NO(g),  heat is evolved. The obtained product, NO2(g) gets stabilized with minimum energy.

Thus, unstable NO(g) converts into stable  NO2(g).

Q-22: Calculate the entropy change in surroundings when 1.00 mol of H2O(l) is formed under standard conditions. ∆f H0= –286 kJ mol–1.

Ans:

$\Delta _{r}H^{\Theta } = -286kJmol^{-1}$ is given so that amount of heat is evolved during the formation of 1 mole of H2O(l).

Thus, the same heat will be absorbed by surrounding Qsurr = +286$kJmol^{-1}$.

Now, $\Delta S_{surr}$ = Qsurr/7

= $\frac{286kJmol^{-1}}{298K}$

Therefore, $\Delta S_{surr} = 959.73Jmol^{-1}K^{-1}$

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## Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6

### How is NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics helpful for board exam preparation?

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics are created by the BYJU’S expert faculty to help students in the preparation of their board examinations. These expert faculty solve and provide the NCERT Solution for Class 11, which would help students to solve the problems comfortably. They give detailed and stepwise explanations to the problems given in the exercise in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11. These solutions help students prepare for their upcoming board exams by covering the whole syllabus, in accordance with the NCERT guidelines.

### What is thermodynamics according to NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6?

Thermodynamics deals with the concepts of heat and temperature and the inter-conversion of heat and other forms of energy. Thermodynamics in Physics is a branch that deals with heat, work and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation and physical properties of matter.

### Is BYJU’S providing answers to all questions present in NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6?

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 are useful for students as it helps them to score well in the board exams. We, in our aim to help students, have devised detailed chapter-wise solutions for them to understand the concepts easily. We have followed the latest CBSE guidelines, while creating the NCERT Solutions and it is framed in accordance with the latest CBSE Syllabus . These solutions are designed by subject matter experts who have assembled model questions covering all the exercise questions from the textbook.
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