NCERT Book Solutions Class 8 Resource And Development Chapter 5
The three major industrial economic sectors in India include the primary sector (which mainly extracts raw material such as mining and farming industries), the secondary sector (involves refining, construction, and manufacturing) and the tertiary sector (concerned with services and distribution of manufactured goods). The industry refers to the economic activity concerned with the manufacture of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Indian Industrial sector includes manufacturing, mining, electricity, and construction. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 – Industries contains the solutions to the exercises dealing with these concepts discussed in the Geography book – Resources and Development. NCERT Solutions will be useful for school exams preparation, as they are sourced from the class textbooks.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography (Resources and Development) Chapter 5 Industries:- Download PDF here
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 – Industries
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?
Answer: Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods like iron and steel industry, extraction of minerals like coal mining industry and the provision of services like tourism industry.
(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?
Answer: Setting up an industry leads to the development and growth of that location. The factors that affect the location of industries are the easy availability of raw material and land, adequate supply of water and labour, access to power and transport, presence of market and a good amount of capital. Sometimes, the government also provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport cost and other infrastructural facilities. This is done to encourage industries to be established in economically backward areas.
(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?
Answer: Steel is called the backbone of the modern industry because almost everything we use is either made of steel or has been made with machinery or tool made out of steel. The steel industry is basically the feeder industry, whose products are the raw materials for other industries.
(iv) Why has the cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?
Answer: The warm and moist climate, proximity to the port, easy availability of raw material and skilled labour helped in the rapid expansion of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Fort Gloster is located in
(a) West Bengal
Answer: (b) California
(ii) Which one of the following is a natural fiber?
Answer: (b) Jute
3. Distinguish between the following.
(i) Agro-based and mineral-based industry
Answer: Agro-based industries use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials. It is a source of employment for people in rural areas. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries. Whereas, Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. It is a source of employment for both rural and urban populations. Steel and Iron Industries and Heavy Machinery industries are examples of Mineral based industries.
(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry
Answer: Industries owned and operated by the government are public sector industries. Steel Authority of India Limited and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited are examples of Public sector industries. On the other hand, joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry.
4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided :
(i) Raw Materials: _____________ and _____________________
Answer: Iron ore and Cotton
(ii) End products: _______________ and _________________________
Answer: Steel and Cloth
(iii) Tertiary Activities: ________________ and __________
Answer: Transport and banking
(iv) Agro-based Industries: ____________ and ____________
Answer: Dairy and Sugar
(v) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ________________
Answer: pottery and basket weaving
(vi) Co-operatives: ______________________ and _____________
Answer: Mother Dairy and Anand Milk Union Limited (Amul)
Chapter 5 Industries Summary
The industry refers to economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Industrial activities are divided in three sectors – Primary sector, Secondary sector and tertiary sector. Industries are divided on the basis of raw material, size and ownership.
Raw materials are basic materials that are used in any industry and they can be classified on the basis of raw materials.
Industries based on raw materials are agro-based, mineral-based and forest-based.
Size of Industries refers to the amount of capital invested, a number of people employed and the volume of production. Industries are classified into two types based on size: small scale and large scale industries.
Small scale industries manufacture products by hand and includes cottage and household industry. These industries use a lesser amount of capital and technology. For example, Basket-weaving, pottery and other handicraft industries.
Large scale industries produce large volumes of products. The investment of capital is higher, and technology is superior. For example, the production of automobiles and heavy machinery.
After independence, India gave emphasis to this sector for development.
Ownership: Industries based on ownership can be classified as:
Private Sector Industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. For example, Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd., Indian Oil Corporation.
Public sector industries owned and operated by the government. For example, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
This also includes Joint Sector Industries and Cooperative Sector Industries.
You will also learn about:
- Factors Affecting the Location of Industries
- Privatisation and Industrialisation, leading to the development and growth of towns and cities.
- Industrial System, Industrial Regions
- Distribution of Major Industries such as Iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the Information technology industry.
‘Resources and Development’ is an important book for Class 8 Social Sciences subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is given in the linked article.