NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Social Science Chapter 4 Agriculture

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture is given here for students to prepare and score good marks in the board exams. The transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities – primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Agriculture is known to be a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing livestock. On a global average, about 50% of people are engaged in agricultural activities.

Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture. Considered as one of the greatest inventions of mankind, it is fundamental to the development of a civilised society. Mankind began to change its mode of life from food gathering to cultivation, thus setting a transitional stage towards more permanent agriculture. Learn further about Agriculture from Chapter 4 of NCERT Solution for Class 8 Geography book.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture consists of solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book – Resources and Development. These NCERT Solutions are easy and accurate, which will align the students’ preparation with the questions asked in the examinations.

Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography PDF below.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography (Resources and Development) Chapter 4 Agriculture: Download PDF here

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture 1
NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers and rearing livestock. Agriculture is a primary activity, as it is connected with the extraction and production of natural resources.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.

Answer: The factors that influence agriculture include soil, climate, topography, population etc.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Answer: Shifting cultivation is also known as slash-and-burn cultivation. It is a type of farming activity which involves clearing a land plot by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil, and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.

The disadvantages of shifting cultivation are as follows:

  • Leads to deforestation
  • Loss of fertility of a particular land
  • Leads to soil erosion
  • Burning of trees causes air pollution
  • Insufficient cultivation of crops for a large population.

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

Answer: Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crops of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, cotton etc., are grown. Large amounts of labour and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, and tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer: Jute and Cotton are fibre crops. The climatic conditions necessary for the growth of jute are high temperature, heavy rainfall and high humidity. Similarly, for the growth of cotton, high temperature, light rainfall, and bright sunshine are required.

2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables

(b) primitive farming

(c) growing of wheat

Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea

(b) cotton

(c) jute

Answer: (c) Jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil

(b) India

(c) Russia

Answer: (a)Brazil

3. Give reasons.

(i) In India, agriculture is a primary activity.

Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity because many regions in India have fertile land that is favourable for agriculture. Two-thirds of the Indian population still depend on agriculture. This is mainly because of the lack of literacy among the people. Hence, India, being a densely populated country, requires large-scale production of food to fulfil the needs of people.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answer: Different crops are grown in different regions because growing the crops depends on factors such as favourable topography of soil, the demand for produce, type of climate, amount of rainfall, technology and labour.

4. Distinguish between the following.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities

Answer: Primary activities are related to the production and extraction of natural resources, such as fishing, agriculture and mining, whereas tertiary activities are those that provide support to primary and secondary sectors in carrying out their activities like transportation, banking etc.

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Answer: Subsistence farming is a type of farming that the farmer practices to meet the needs of his family. The cultivation of crops is done for personal consumption. It involves low levels of technology and household labour to produce a small output. In intensive subsistence agriculture, the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Rice, wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds are the crops grown in this type of farming. Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions.

Chapter 4 – Agriculture Summary

Agriculture refers to the practice or science of farming that includes the cultivation of the soil and the growing of crops. It also includes the rearing of animals to fulfil the demand for wool, food and other products.

Types of farming can be broadly categorised into two main types.

Subsistence farming – This type of farming by the farmers to fulfil only their family’s needs. It is further categorised as intensive subsistence agriculture and primitive subsistence agriculture.

Shifting cultivation – Farmers cultivate a piece of land by burning the vegetation on the land, and after burning, the farmer mixes the ashes into the soil and cultivates the land. After the land becomes barren, they move to a new location. It is also known as slash and burn.

You will also learn about the following topics:

  • Nomadic herding
  • Commercial farming
  • Mixed farming
  • Plantations
  • Major crops – various major crops in India, namely rice, wheat millet, maize, cotton, jute, coffee and tea, are discussed
  • Agricultural development – The efforts made to meet the growing demand of the increasing population. It also discusses the most suitable type of farming in different countries

Resources and Development is an important book for Class 8 Social Science subject. Apart from this chapter, solutions for the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science are provided in the links. Students can refer to and download the solutions available in PDF form for free from the links given.

Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4

What do students primarily learn from Chapter 4 of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography?

Chapter 4 of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography deals with agriculture and its types. Major crops in India, namely rice, wheat millet, maize, cotton, jute, coffee and tea, are discussed. Also, the chapter explains about agricultural development, i.e. the efforts made to meet the growing demand of the increasing population and the most suitable type of farming in different countries. The solutions are accessible in a PDF that can be used by the students based on their needs. Subject experts have curated all the answers, following the latest CBSE guidelines.

Do the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 provide correct answers to the textbook questions?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 is created by expert academic professionals at BYJU’S to aid students with their exam preparations. All the concepts are explained in simple language, which enables students to comprehend easily. By referring to NCERT Solutions regularly, students will learn to answer difficult/complex questions effortlessly and confidently. Further, they can also self-assess their knowledge about the chapter and work on them to improve performance.

Mention the disadvantages of shift cultivation learnt in Chapter 4 of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography.

The disadvantages of shift cultivation are listed below:
1. Leads to deforestation
2. Loss of fertility of a particular land
3. Leads to soil erosion
4. Burning of trees causes air pollution
5. Insufficient cultivation of crops for a large population

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