NCERT Book Solutions Class 8 Resource And Development Chapter 4
The transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities – primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Agriculture is known to be a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing livestock. On a global average, about 50% of people are engaged in agricultural activities. Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture. Considered as one of the greatest inventions of mankind, it is fundamental to the development of a civilised society. Mankind began to change its mode of life from food gathering to cultivation, thus setting a transitional stage towards more permanent agriculture. Learn further about Agriculture from Chapter 4 of NCERT Class 8 Geography book. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture consists of solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book – Resources and Development. These NCERT Solutions are easy and accurate, which will align the school students’ preparation with the questions asked in the examinations.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography (Resources and Development) Chapter 4 Agriculture:- Download PDF here
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers and rearing livestock. Agriculture is a primary activity, as it is connected with the extraction and production of natural resources.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture.
Answer: The factors that influence agriculture include soil, climate, topography, population etc.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Answer: Shifting cultivation is also known as Slash-and-burn cultivation. It is a type of farming activity which involves clearing of a land plot by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.
Disadvantages of shifting cultivation:
- Leads to deforestation
- Loss of fertility of a particular land
- Leads to Soil erosion
- Burning of trees causes air pollution
- Insufficient cultivation of crops for a large population.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Answer: Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crops of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amounts of capital and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.
(v) Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Answer: Jute and Cotton are fiber crops. The climatic conditions necessary for the growth of Jute are high temperature, heavy rainfall and high humidity. Similarly, for the growth of cotton, high temperature, light rainfall, bright sunshine are required.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) Golden fiber refers to
Answer: (c) Jute
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
3. Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity because many regions in India have fertile land that is favourable for agriculture. Two-thirds of the Indian population still depend on agriculture. This is mainly because of the lack of literacy among the people. Hence, India being a densely populated country requires large scale production of food to fulfil the people needs.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
Answer Different crops are grown in different regions because growing the crops depends on factors such as favourable topography of soil, demand of produce, type of climate, amount of rainfall, technology and labour.
4. Distinguish between the following.
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
Answer: Primary activities are related to production and extraction of natural resources such as fishing, agriculture, mining, whereas tertiary activities are those that provide support to primary and secondary sectors in carrying out their activities like transportation, banking etc.
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.
Answer: Subsistence farming is a type of farming that the farmer practices to meet the needs of his family. The cultivation of crops is done for personal consumption. It involves low levels of technology and household labour to produce a small output. In intensive subsistence agriculture, the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Rice, wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds are the crops grown in this type of farming. Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions.
Chapter 4 Agriculture Summary
Agriculture refers to the practice or science of farming that includes cultivation of soil and growing of crops. It also includes the rearing of animals to fulfil the demand for wool, food and other products.
Types of Farming can be broadly categorized into two main types.
Subsistence Farming– this type of farming by the farmers to fulfil only their family’s need. It is further categorized as Intensive subsistence agriculture and Primitive subsistence agriculture.
Shifting cultivation– Farmers cultivate a piece of land by burning the vegetation on the land, and after burning, the farmer mixes the ashes into the soil and cultivates the land. After the land becomes barren, he moves to a new location. It is also known as slash and burn.
You will also learn about the following topics:
- Nomadic herding
- Commercial farming
- Mixed farming
- Major crops- various major crops in India, namely rice, wheat millet, maize, cotton, jute, coffee and tea are discussed.
- Agricultural Development – The efforts made to meet the growing demand of the increasing population. It also discusses the most suitable type of farming in different countries.
Resources and Development is an important book for Class 8 Social Sciences subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is given in the linked article.