NCERT Book Solutions Class 8 Resource And Development Chapter 6
The term human resources refer to the size of the population of a country along with its efficiency, educational qualities, productivity, organisational abilities and farsightedness. It is the ultimate resource, but not
equally, distributed over the world. Human Resources differ in their educational levels, age and sex. Their numbers and characteristics also keep changing. Chapter 6 of CBSE Class 8 Geography deals with this topic and related concepts. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 – Human Resources discusses the solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book – Resources and Development. NCERT Solutions to these exercises are easy and accurate, helping school students align their preparation with the questions asked in the examinations.
Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography PDF below.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography (Resources and Development) Chapter 6 Human Resources
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) Why are people considered a resource?
Answer: People are the greatest resource of the nation. All other resources of nature become significant only when people extract its usefulness. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into resources. Hence, human resource is the ultimate resource.
(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?
Answer: Population distribution in the world is uneven because of the two factors Geographical and Social factors.
Geographical factors include.
- Topography: People prefer living on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities. The Ganga plains are the most densely populated area of the world, while mountains like Andes, Alps and Himalayas are sparsely populated.
- Water: People prefer living in areas where fresh water is easily available. The river valleys of the world are the densely populated regions, while deserts have spare population.
Social Factors include:
- Social: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more densely populated. (For example: Pune)
- Economic: Industrial areas provide employment opportunities. Large number of people are attracted to these areas. Osaka in Japan and Mumbai in India are two densely populated areas.
(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
Answer: The world population has not been stable and has increased manifold due to advancements in science and technology. Science and Technology has increased food production and development in healthcare facilities has helped in reducing death rate.
(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
Answer: Two factors influencing the change in population are birth rate and death rate. Birth rate is the number of births per 1,000 people and death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people. Births and deaths are the natural causes of population change. When the birth rate is more than the death rate, it means that the population is increasing and vice-versa. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate.
(v) What is meant by population composition?
Answer: Population composition refers to the structure of the population. The composition of the population helps us know how many are males or females, which age group they belong to, how educated they are, what type of occupations they are employed in and what their income levels and health conditions are. An interesting way of studying the population composition of a country is by looking at the population pyramid, also called an age-sex pyramid.
(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?
Answer: The graphical representation used to study the composition of a country’s population is called the population pyramid. It shows the total population divided into various age groups, percentage of the total population subdivided into males and females and the number of dependents in a country. When the population of a country has high birth and death rates, the population pyramid is broad at the base and narrow towards the top.
2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) What does the term ‘population distribution’ refer to?
- How the population in a specified area changes over time.
- The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
- The way in which people are spread across a given area.
Answer (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area
(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy
Answer (b) Births, deaths and migration.
(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion
Answer (c) 6 billion
(iv) What is a population pyramid?
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.
Answer (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population
3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
(sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely)
When people are attracted to an area, it becomes ………………….. populated, Factors that influence this include ………………….. climate; good supplies of ………………….. resources and ………………….. land.
Answer: When people are attracted to an area, it becomes densely populated, Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.
Chapter 6 Human Resources Summary
People, i.e. humans, are a nation’s greatest resource, it is one of the building blocks for a nation’s development. It is humans, with their skills and abilities that can transform and extract or add value to other resources. Hence, human resources are the ultimate resource.
Like other resources, human resources are not equally distributed over the world. The more population a country has, the more it is considered to be rich in human resources.
Distribution of Population refers to the way in which people are spread across the earth surface.
The population distribution in the world is extremely uneven. Some areas are sparsely populated while others are densely populated, because of the various factors affecting the distribution of the population.
Population density refers to the number of people living in a unit area of the earth’s surface.
The density of India is 382 persons per sq km, which is one of the highest in the world.
You will also learn about the following:
- Factor Affecting Distribution of Population such as climate, soil, minerals, topography, water and other social, economical and cultural factors.
- Population Change and reasons for changes in population
- Natural growth rate, birth rate, death rate and life expectancy.
- The pattern of Population Change
- Population compositions and population pyramid
‘Resources and Development’ is an important book for Class 8 Social Science subject. Apart from this chapter, the full set of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science is given in the linked article.