Flashcards For NEET Biology - Chemical Coordination and Integration

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Chemical Coordination and Integration. These flashcards on Chemical Coordination and Integration are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Chemical Coordination and Integration, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Biology

Chemical Coordination and Integration

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Chemical Coordination and Integration

Hormones

Secreted from ductless glands

Acts as an intercellular chemical messenger

Non-nutrient and present in trace amounts

Hypothalamus

Diencephalon, master of the master gland (pituitary)

Regulates secretion from anterior pituitary through the hypophyseal portal system

Neurohypophysis is under the direct control

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)

Secreted from- hypothalamus

Function- stimulates the synthesis of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary

Somatostatin

Secreted from- hypothalamus

Function- inhibits the secretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary

Pars distalis

A part of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

Secretes- GH, ACTH, TSH, LH, FSH, PRL

Pars intermedia

A part of the adenohypophysis

Secretes- MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone)

Function- MSH regulates pigmentation of the skin

Pars nervosa

Neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary

Secretes- oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH)

These hormones are synthesised in the hypothalamus and transported by axon and released by nerve endings

Growth hormone (GH)

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function- Regulates growth

Gigantism– due to overproduction

Dwarfism– due to under production

Acromegaly– due to overproduction in adults

Prolactin (PRL)

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function- stimulates the growth of mammary glands and milk production

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function- stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function- stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (cortisol)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Gonadotrophins

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function in males- stimulates the synthesis of androgens

Function in females- induces ovulation and maintenance of corpus luteum

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Gonadotrophins

Secreted by- anterior pituitary

Function in males- regulates spermatogenesis with androgens

Function in females- growth and development of ovarian follicles

Oxytocin

Secreted by- posterior pituitary

Function- stimulates contraction of smooth muscles, stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth

Oxytocin injection is given to induce labour pain

Vasopressin or Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

Secreted by- posterior pituitary

Function- stimulates reabsorption of water from distal tubules in the kidneys and prevents diuresis

Diabetes Insipidus- decreased synthesis of ADH leading to excessive loss of water from the kidneys

Pineal gland

Location- dorsal side of the forebrain

Secretion- melatonin

Function- regulates the sleep-wake cycle, temperature. Also regulates metabolism, pigmentation, immune system and menstrual cycle

Thyroid gland

Location- present on both sides of trachea joined by an isthmus

Secretion- T4 (thyroxine) and T3 from follicular cells, calcitonin from ‘C’ cells

Function- regulation of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, BMR and water and electrolyte balance, regulation of blood calcium level by calcitonin

Hypothyroidism

Goitre– enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency

Cretinism– due to congenital thyroid deficiency causing growth retardation, learning difficulties

Irregular menstrual cycle in adult females

Hyperthyroidism

Thyroid cancer- nodule formation leading to excess production of thyroid hormones

Exophthalmic goitre or Grave’s disease- enlargement of the thyroid gland, increased BMR, weight loss and eyeballs protrude out

Parathyroid gland

Location- a pair in each lobe of the thyroid gland

Secretion- parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Function- play role in calcium balance with calcitonin. It increases blood calcium level by dissolution from bones, reabsorption from kidneys and absorption from food

Thymus

Location- between lungs behind sternum

Secretion- thymosins

Function- play role in immune system development. Differentiation of T-lymphocytes and production of antibodies

Adrenal gland

Location- above each kidney

Secretion- glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids (corticoids) from the adrenal cortex

Epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) from the adrenal medulla

Adrenal cortex

Outer- zona glomerulosa

Middle- zona fasciculata

Inner- zona reticularis

Secretes many hormones called corticoids or steroid hormones

Function- involved in carbohydrate metabolism and water and electrolyte balance

Glucocorticoids

Secreted by- adrenal cortex

E.g. Cortisol

Function- stimulates gluconeogenesis, proteolysis, lipolysis, RBC production, anti-inflammatory reactions, inhibits cellular uptake and utilisation of amino acids and also helps in maintaining cardiac and kidney functions

Mineralocorticoids

Secreted by- adrenal cortex

E.g. Aldosterone

Function- maintenance of electrolytes, water and blood pressure, stimulates reabsorption of water and Na+ ions and excretion of K+ and phosphate ions

Adrenal androgens

Secreted by- zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex

E.g. Androstenedione (A4), Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Function- weak androgenic activity, play role in the growth of axial, pubic and facial hair during puberty

Catecholamines

Epinephrine or Adrenaline and Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline

Secreted by- adrenal medulla during the stress response

Function- induce flight or fight responses, alertness, sweating, increased heartbeat, respiratory rate, breakdown of glycogen, lipids and proteins

Pancreas

Both exocrine as well as endocrine

Islets of Langerhans secrete two peptide hormones

𝛼-cells- glucagon

β-cells- insulin

Insulin

Secreted by- β-cells of the pancreas

Function- increases glucose uptake and utilisation by hepatocytes and adipocytes causing hypoglycemia and also stimulates glycogenesis, i.e. conversion of glucose to glycogen

Glucagon

Secreted by- 𝛼-cells of the pancreas

Function- acts on hepatocytes and induce glycogenolysis, i.e. breakdown of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis leading to hyperglycemia

Testes

Location- scrotal sac in males

Secretion- androgens from the Leydig or interstitial cells

E.g. Testosterone

Function- development and maturation of male sex organs, spermatogenesis, secondary sexual characteristics, libido, anabolic effect on carbohydrate and protein metabolism

Ovaries

Location- abdomen of females

Secretion- estrogen from follicles and progesterone from corpus luteum

Function- development and maturation of female sex organs, secondary sexual characteristics, progesterone supports pregnancy and milk secretion and alveoli formation

Anti natriuretic factor (ANF)

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- atrial wall

Function- vasodilator, decreases blood pressure

Erythropoietin

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of kidneys

Function- stimulates the formation of RBC, i.e. erythropoiesis

Gastrin

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- G-cells of stomach

Function- stimulates the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen

Secretin

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- S-cells of the duodenum

Function- stimulates the secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- I-cells of the duodenum

Function- stimulates the secretion of bile juice by the gallbladder and pancreatic enzymes

Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)

A peptide hormone

Secreted by- K-cells of the small intestine

Function- inhibits gastric secretion, stimulates insulin secretion

Growth factors

Secreted by- non-endocrine tissues

E.g. epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, etc.

Function- normal cellular growth, repair and regeneration

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