Flashcards For NEET Biology - Locomotion and Movement

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Locomotion and Movement. These flashcards on Locomotion and Movement are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Locomotion and Movement, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Name of the NEET sub-section

Topic

Flashcards helpful for

Biology

Locomotion and Movement

NEET exams

 

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Locomotion and Movement

Fascicles

A bundle of muscle fibres

Many fascicles held together by fascia (collagenous connective tissue) to form a skeletal muscle

Sarcolemma

The plasma membrane of a muscle fibre

Sarcoplasm

The cytoplasm of a muscle fibre

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fibre, which stores Calcium ions

Sarcomere

The functional unit of contraction

Part of a myofibril between two consecutive ‘Z’ lines

Thin or Actin filaments

Attached to the ‘Z’ line (elastic fibre)

Made up of:- ‘F’-actin, which is a polymer of ‘G’ (globular) actin, Tropomyosin and Troponin, which masks the active binding sites of myosin

Thick or Myosin filaments

Attached to the ‘M’ line in the middle (thin fibrous membrane)

Monomeric unit- Meromyosins

Heavy meromyosin (HMM)- globular head and short arm

Light meromyosin (LMM)- tail

Globular myosin head

ATPase activity

The binding site for calcium ions and actin filament

Anisotropic (‘A’) or dark band

Formed by overlapping actin and myosin filaments

The length remains the same during contraction

Isotropic (‘I’) or light band

Made up of actin filaments

The length reduces during muscle contraction

‘H’ Zone

The middle portion of the thick filament, which is not overlapped by the thin filament in the resting state

Muscle fatigue

Anaerobic breakdown of glycogen leading to lactic acid accumulation

Occurs due to repeated activation and low oxygen availability

Red fibres

Aerobic muscles

Myoglobin content is high

Large amount of mitochondria are present

White fibres

Anaerobic muscles

Myoglobin content is low

Fewer mitochondria but more sarcoplasmic reticulum

Cranial bones

8 in number

Frontal, parietal (2), temporal (2), occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid

Facial bones

14 in number

A pair of lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic, maxillae, palatine, nasal conchae and one vomer and mandible (lower jaw, movable)

Hyoid bone

A single u-shaped bone at the base of the buccal cavity

Atlas

First vertebra, which articulates with the occipital condyles of the skull

Vertebral column

Made up of 26 vertebrae

Cervical- 7

Thoracic- 12

Lumber- 5

Sacral- 1 (fused)

Coccygeal- 1 (fused)

Sternum

One flat bone present ventrally

Ribs

12 pairs

True ribs- 1st to 7th

Vertebrochondral or false ribs- 8th to 10th

Floating ribs- 11th and 12th

Rib cage

Thoracic vertebrae, ribs and sternum

Forelimb

30 bones each

Humerus, radius, ulna, carpals (8, wrist bones), metacarpals (5, palm), phalanges (14, digits)

Hindlimb

30 bones each

Femur (longest bone), tibia, fibula, patella (knee cap), tarsals (7, ankle bones), metatarsals (5, sole), phalanges (14, digits)

Pectoral girdle

Each half is made up of clavicle (collar bone) and scapula

Head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity, forming shoulder joint

Pelvic girdle

2 coxal bones, each coxal bone is made up of ilium, ischium and pubis

Head of the femur articulates with acetabulum cavity

Pubic symphysis

Formed by two halves of the pelvic girdle joined ventrally by fibrous cartilage

Fibrous joints

No movement

Bones are joined by dense fibrous connective tissues

E.g. skull bones in the cranium

Cartilaginous joints

Limited movement

Bones are joined by cartilage

E.g. vertebrae in the vertebral column

Synovial joints

Considerable movement

Synovial cavity between articulating surfaces of two bones

E.g. Pivot joint- between atlas and axis

Saddle joint- between carpal and metacarpal of the thumb

Gliding joint- between the carpals, Ball and socket, Hinge joint, etc.

Myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction

Antibodies destroy or block the acetylcholine receptors

Muscular dystrophy

Genetic disorder due to defective gene

Progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles

Tetany

Metabolic disorder due to calcium deficiency

Continued contractions leading to rapid spasms

Tetanus

A bacterial disease, caused by Clostridium tetani

Also known as lockjaw, painful muscle spasms

Osteoporosis

Age-related disease

Decreased bone mass

Low estrogen level is a common cause

Gout

Metabolic disorder

Accumulation of uric acid crystals in joints causing inflammation

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