Flashcards For NEET Biology - Digestion and Absorption

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Digestion and Absorption. These flashcards on Digestion and Absorption are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Digestion and Absorption, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Name of the NEET sub-section
Topic
Flashcards helpful for
Biology
Digestion and Absorption
NEET exams

 

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Digestion and Absorption
Thecodont The base of the tooth in the socket of bone
Diphyodont Two successive sets of teeth
Heterodont Different types of teeth

Incisors, canine, premolars and molars

Dental formula 2123

2123

Tongue Attached to the oral cavity by the frenulum

Papillae- small projections, some have taste buds

Epiglottis Cartilaginous flap, which prevents food from entering glottis
Pyloric sphincter Guards opening of the stomach into the duodenum
Caecum Hosts symbiotic microorganisms

Vermiform appendix arise fro caecum

Serosa The outermost layer of the alimentary canal

Thin mesothelium and some connective tissues

Muscularis Comes after serosa

Inner circular and outer longitudinal

Made up of smooth muscles

Submucosa Made up of loose connective tissues

Contains nerves, blood and lymph vessels

Brunner’s glands in the duodenum are present in sub-mucosa

Mucosa The innermost wall of the alimentary canal, lines the lumen

Forms irregular folds rugae in stomach

Goblet cells- secrete mucus

Contains gastric glands

Villi Finger-like foldings in the intestine and increase absorption surface

Supplied by blood capillaries and a large lymph vessel called lacteals

Salivary Glands Parotid- cheek

Submaxillary/ submandibular- lower jaw

Sublingual- below the tongue

Salivary amylase Source- salivary glands

Function- carbohydrate digestion starts here

Starch (30%) is converted to disaccharide, maltose. Optimum pH 6.8

Lysozyme Source- saliva

Function- antibacterial and protects from infection

Pepsin Source- Peptic or chief cells of the stomach as proenzyme pepsinogen

Function- Proteolytic, converts proteins to peptides

HCl Source- Parietal or oxyntic cells

Function- converts pepsinogen to pepsin and provides acidic pH (1.8) for the action of pepsin

Rennin Source- chief cells of infants as prorennin

Function- digestion of milk protein casein

Intrinsic factor Source- Parietal or oxyntic cells

Function- Absorption of vitamin B12

Enterokinase Source- Intestinal mucosa

Function- converts trypsinogen to active enzyme trypsin

Bile Source- Produced by liver, stored in gallbladder and released into duodenum by hepatopancreatic duct

Contains- Bilirubin, biliverdin, cholesterol, phospholipids, bile salts, no enzymes

Function- Emulsification of fats and activation of pancreatic lipases

Brunner’s glands Present in- Submucosal layer of duodenum

Function- Protects intestinal mucosa from acid content of chyme and provides an alkaline medium for enzyme activity (pH=7.8)

Chyme Semifluid acidic mass of partly digested food which enters duodenum from the stomach
Secretin Source- A hormone secreted by S-cells of the duodenum (enteroendocrine cells)

Function- Stimulates secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate, regulation of gastric acid secretion and osmoregulation

Cholecystokinin Source- Secreted in the duodenum by I cells

Function- Stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile juice and stimulates enzyme production by the pancreas

Sphincter of Oddi Guards the opening of the hepatopancreatic duct into the duodenum
Goblet cells Present in- the intestinal mucosal epithelium

Secrete- mucus containing a glycosylated protein called mucin

Function- Lubrication and protection of the intestinal mucosa from acid

Trypsin Source- Pancreas as a proenzyme trypsinogen

Function- Activates other proenzymes of pancreatic juice and proteolytic enzyme

Chymotrypsin Source- Pancreas as a proenzyme chymotrypsinogen

Function- proteolytic enzyme, converts polypeptides to dipeptides

Crypts of Lieberkuhn Crypts at the bases of villi in the mucosa layer of the intestine
Carboxypeptidase Source- Pancreas as a proenzyme procarboxypeptidase

Function- Protease enzyme, hydrolyses carboxy-terminal of a protein or peptide

Pancreatic amylase Source- Pancreas

Function- Polysaccharide into a disaccharide

Pancreatic lipases Source- Pancreas

Function- Digestion of fats to di and monoglycerides

Nucleases Source- Pancreas

Function- Converts nucleic acids to nucleotides and nucleosides

Succus entericus Intestinal juice (alkaline)

Secreted by- glands of the intestinal wall (goblet cells, brush-border epithelium)

Contains- Mucus, Enzymes- enterokinase, dipeptidases, nucleosidases, lipases, disaccharidases (maltase, lactase, etc.)

Gastric lipases Source- Peptic cells or chief cells of the stomach

Function- small amount ~1% of emulsified fat in the food is digested to fatty acid and glycerol

Dipeptidase Source- Small intestine

Function- Dipeptides to amino acids

Maltase Source- Small intestine

Function- Maltose to glucose

Sucrase Source- Small intestine

Function- Sucrose to glucose and fructose

Lactase Source- Small intestine

Function- Lactose to glucose and galactose

Nucleotidases Source- Small intestine

Function- Nucleotides to nucleosides

Nucleosidases Source- Small intestine

Function- Nucleosides to sugar and bases

Lipases Source- Small intestine

Function- Mono and diglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol

Physiologic Calorific value Fats- 9 kcal/g

Carbohydrates- 4 kcal/g

Proteins- 4 kcal/g

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Also Check:

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