Cinder Cone

The power of the earth can be witnessed by us through various natural phenomena earthquakes, landslides, floods and volcanoes. A volcano is a landform, a mountain, where molten rocks erupt through the surface of the planet. The volcano which has erupted in the recent past is termed an active volcano. A volcano is a mountain that is formed by the accumulation of eruptive products like rocks, lava, ash, and gases. Volcanic eruptions are partly driven by pressure from dissolved gas present below the surface of the Earth. Gases and igneous rocks shoot up and splash over or fill the air with lava fragments. The volcano eruption can cause hot ash, lateral blasts and lava flow, mudslides, and more. Volcanic eruptions are one of the types of natural disaster that takes place on earth.

Types of volcanoes are:

  • Composite volcanoes
  • Shield volcanoes
  • Lava volcanoes
  • Cinder cones

In this article, let’s have a look at these volcanoes.

Composite Volcanoes

Composite volcanoes are also referred to as stratovolcanoes. These types of volcanoes are tall and conical in shape. Steep sided composite cones are formed from layers of ashes and cones. When this volcano erupts, a superheated mixture of hot steam, ash, rock and dust are erupted out. The lava flowing from composite volcanoes cools and hardens before spreading far due to highly viscous lava. Since it is thicker, the lava cannot travel down the slope. Stratovolcanoes can rise over 8000 feet.

Shield Volcanoes

Shield volcanoes are formed from the layers of lava. These volcanoes, when erupted, flow down the slope as it contains less viscous lava which is fast-flowing fluid. When eruption takes place, loss of property, death, and other damages occurs.

Lava Volcanoes

Lava volcanoes are also known as Lava Domes; these volcanoes are smaller in size and consist of thick lava. Lava in this volcano does not flow easily since it is sticky and thick. When the lava cannot flow easily due to high viscosity, the lava piles up near the volcanic vent and forms lava volcanoes.

Cinder Cones

Cinder refers to the pyroclastic fragments, which is composed of rock. Cinder cones are also known as ash cones.

Cinder cones are the type of volcano that is formed by pyroclastic fragments like volcanic ashes, solidified lava pieces, volcanic clinkers, pumice and hot gases. These volcanoes are formed around the volcanic vent and are known to be the simplest form of a volcano. Cinder cones are formed when the gas-charged lava is blown with a great force into the air; it breaks into small fragments and solidifies. This solidified material builds up a circular or oval-shaped cone with a bowl-shaped crater at the top. They grow rapidly and in some cases it’s been recorded that cinder cones grow up 1,000 feet. Ash cones are found along the flanks of shield volcanoes, and the main reason for the formation of cinder cone volcanoes are the massive eruptions of mafic rock fragments and lava. Most of the cinder cones erupt only once and may form as flank vents on larger volcanoes or occur on their own.

The cinder cone is as shown in the figure below.

Cinder Cone Image 1

The formation of the cinder cone volcanoes is influenced by the environmental conditions of the place. Pressure and gravity influence the formation of the volcano. For example: When the cinder cones are formed on Mars, it occupies more space and is wider. Since Mars experiences less atmospheric pressure and gravity than Earth, it aids in a wider dispersion of ejected particles over a larger area.

Read more about how to make a volcano.

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Frequently Asked Questions on Cinder Cone

1. Which is the smallest type of volcano?

Cinder cones.

2. Which factors influence the formation of cinder cones?

Pressure and gravity.

3. What is a pyroclastic flow?

When a volcano erupts, the viscous flow of solidified lava pieces, volcanic ash, and hot gases are the outcome of the volcano. This flow of materials is known as a pyroclastic flow.

4. What are the types of volcanoes?

Types of volcanoes are:

  • Composite volcanoes
  • Shield volcanoes
  • Lava volcanoes
  • Cinder cones

5. Which type of volcano is formed by the layers of lava?

Shield volcano.

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