Aim Of The Experiment
To study the different slides and identifying them with various characteristics. The various specimens are:
- Liver fluke
- Ascaris lumbricoidis
- Freshly prepared animal specimens
- Record file
- Practical guide/A laboratory guide
- It is a microscopic, unicellular entity with a diameter of 0.2-0.5mm, appearing greyish in colour.
- The amoeba is usually found in ditches, ponds, lakes or rivers that contain adequate decomposed organic matter.
- When observed under a microscope, amoeba seems to be like a jelly that has an irregular shape containing a little mass of hyaline protoplasm. This protoplasm can be classified into a notable inner endoplasm and outer octoplasm.
- Irregular shape
- Exhibit pseudopodia – They are blunt and finger-like projections that are used in locomotion and phagocytosis
- They exhibit contractile vacuole
- They are solitary and freshwater forms that are found attached to rocks, stones and weeds
- The body resembles a cylindrical and an elongated tube wherein the posterior end is attached to the substratum by a basal disc and the anterior end is free
- The body wall of hydra is made up of two cell layers referred to as diploblastic
- The epidermis consists of cnidocytes or stinging cells that serve as defensive and offensive organs
- Possess a soft body and are diploblastic
- The free end exhibits an inverted funnel-like structure known as hypostome which is the mouth
- The mouth is girdled with a circlet of around 5 to 10 long and hollow structures known as tentacles. These tentacles help in capturing prey as these structures contain cnidoblasts which assist in the killing of the prey.
- The gastrovascular cavity is present which opens to the mouth
Liver Fluke (Fasciola herpatica) present, which
- Usually found in internal organs such as bile ducts of goats, sheep, and cattle as it is an endoparasite. It is sometimes also found in a few vertebrates but not in humans.
- They are known to cause liver rot – a disease of the liver
- It resembles a triangular shape that is flat and leaf-like parasite approximately 25mm long. It possesses a ventral an oval sucker known as the acetabulum which adheres to the bile duct.
- The body of the liver fluke is covered with cuticle with spinules.
- Leaf-like body resembling a triangular shape
- The body of the liver fluke is covered with cuticles
- Exhibits two suckers
Roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides)
- It is an endoparasite found in the intestine of man.
- It can cause weakness, anaemia, laziness and adverse abdominal discomfort
- The body is long, cylindrical and unsegmented with pointed edges.
- The body is covered by a soft and thin cuticle that is marked with fine striations.
- The body shows four longitudinal ridges throughout the body
- The anterior end of the body possesses a mouth.
- On the ventral surface, the excretory pore is located just a little behind the mouth.
- They are unisexual, exhibiting a well-defined sexual dimorphism.
Leech (Hirudinaria granulosa)
Also Refer: Annelida
- It is found in freshwater ponds and sluggish streams.
- Commonly known as Indian cattle leech, it is a temporary ectoparasite that feeds on cattle and blood.
- The body is elongated, dorsoventrally flattened and metamerically segmented. The body has 33 segments.
- Exhibits powerful organ attachments and locomotion.
- There are five pairs of small eyes situated dorsally in the first five segments.
- The anus is present at the base of the posterior sucker dorsally.
- The anterior end has an anterior sucker which is cup-shaped, turned downwards and ventral, wherein the mouth is centrally located. The posterior end has a posterior sucker, which is circular and is highly muscular. It is formed as a result of the fusion of the last 7 segments.
- Leech is bisexual.
Earthworm (Pheretima Posthuma)
- Commonly found in moist soil.
- The body is long, triploblastic, cylindrical, eucoelomate and metamerically segmented.
- The mouth is at the anterior end and anus at the posterior end.
- The clitellum (a circular band of glandular tissue) is located at the 14th, 15th, and 16th segments
- Earthworms are hermaphrodites.
- Presence of a single female genital aperture mid-ventrally in the 14th segment.
- Presence of a pair of male genital apertures ventrolaterally in the 18th segment.
- A pair of genital papillae are located ventrolaterally in the 17th and the 19th segment
- The anus is present in the last segment.
- Setae are the locomotory structures that are located on all segments except the first and the last.
Also Refer: Arthropoda
- It is a freshwater entity that is found in ponds, lakes and rivers.
- The body is laterally compressed and protected by a chitinous exoskeleton. The body exhibits an anterior cephalothorax and a posterior abdomen
- The cephalothorax is formed by the fusion of 5 segments that constitute the head and the thorax is composed of 8 segments.
- The carapace is an exoskeleton shield that protects the cephalothorax. Anteriorly, it is produced into a serrated median process known as the rostrum.
- Pair of stalked eyes at the base of the rostrum.
- There is one pair of appendage at each segment of the cephalothorax. 5 pairs in the head region, 8 pairs of the thoracic region. The last 5 pairs are for walking known as pereopods.
- The abdomen has 6 segments followed by a telson which is a conical flat piece.
- A pair of abdominal segments at the ventral side known as pleopods or swimmers are present.
- Uropods are the last pair of abdominal appendages.
Silkworm (Bombyx Mori)
- An adult silk moth has a creamy white colour and is about 3 inches in length having two wings.
- The body can be distinguished into the head, thorax, and abdomen and is covered with tiny scales.
- The larvae undergo a metamorphosis for four months post which they stop feeding. Through its spinnerets, they secrete a slimy fluid. This liquid, when it comes in contact with air turns into silk thread and stays coiled and wrapped around its body to form the pupa.
- Larva from the cocoon.
- Two pairs of wings are present along with three pairs of legs.
Apple Snail (Pila Globosa)
- It has a slim and soft body that is enveloped in a coiled calcareous shell.
- The shell opening is sealed by an operculum – thick plated.
- The body can be distinguished into the head, foot, visceral mass and mantle.
- There is a slight sexual dimorphism with separation of the sexes.
- The shell is coiled and univalved.
- The foot is broad and muscular.
- The head is distinct from tentacles and eyes.
- It is a marine form found in the rocky and sandy parts of the sea
- A star-shaped body consisting of a central disc with 5 radiating arms. Broad at the base and taper towards the extremities
- The body can be distinguished into an oral surface directed downwards and aboral surface directed upwards
- On the oral surface at the centre of the disc, a pentagonal mouth is present. 5 narrow ambulacral grooves emerge from the 5 corners of the mouth, which extend along the middle of the oral surface of 5 arms up to their margins
- Each of this groove has 2 double rows of tube feet helping in locomotion
- The aboral surface has many spines and the anus is located at the centre of the disc on the same surface
- The madreporite is a perforated calcareous plate located between the bases of two arms on the aboral surface
Shark (Scolidon Sorrakowah)
- It is widely distributed in marine waters. It is precious and attacks the preys with powerful jaws.
- The body is long, laterally compressed and spindle-shaped that tapers at both ends.
- It can be distinguished into the head, trunk, and tail.
- The ventral surface is pale in colour while the lateral and dorsal body surface is dark grey.
- The skin is covered by an exoskeleton of dermal scales, placoid scales. The head is dorsoventrally flattened, which is produced to form a snout.
- The head has a large pair of circular eyes at the sides, the mouth is wise crescentic present ventrally. A pair of nostrils is present in the front.
- 5 pairs of naked gill slits are present behind the eyes.
- The trunk has two types of fins – lateral fins and median fins.
- Between the bases of the pelvic fins, a cloacal aperture is present
- Male sharks have a pair of claspers.
Carp (Labeo Rohita or Rohu)
- It is a freshwater bony fish that is found in rivers and ponds. It is a source of food
- The body is compressed, fusiform and matures up to 1m in length. The body is distinguished into the head, trunk, and tail and is covered by a large overlapping cycloid scales
- Head is depressed to form a blunt snout and has a subterminal fringe lipped mouth with no teeth, a pair of eyes and nostrils
- Four pairs of gill slits on the lateral side of the body behind the eyes. The gill slits are covered by an operculum. The lateral line is clear and distinct.
- The trunk comprises of a pair of pectoral fins, a pair of pelvic fins, a dorsal fin a ventral or anal fin and a homocercal caudal fin.
- It is terrestrial and nocturnal.
- The body is distinguished into the head and the trunk.
- The skin is warty and dry.
- The head has a pair of eyes, nostrils, tympanum, parotid glands and a mouth.
- The mouth is large with no teeth.
- The tympanum is well developed and the eyes are large.
- Behind the tympanum, the parotid glands are present, which secretes a poisonous fluid that has an irritating effect.
- The trunk has a pair of hind limbs, forelimbs, and at the posterior end there is a cloaca.
- Shorter forelimbs wherein each one has 3 webless fingers and a thumbpad.
- The hind-limbs are longer wherein each one has 3 toes with a highly reduced web.
See Also: Difference Between Frog And Toad
- It is typically brown in colour and is 8-14cm in length.
- The body can be distinguished into the head that is thick and flattered, the neck is short, the trunk is large with a tapering tail.
- The head has a pair of eyes having movable eyelids, ear openings and nostrils.
- The skin is covered with tiny scales and is dry.
- The tail has annular pores of scales. These scales can be broken.
- They have four limbs, each having five clawed digits.
Pigeon (Columba Livia)
- It is adapted for an aerial or volant mode of life and is a common domesticated bird.
- The body is boat-shaped and can be distinguished into the head, trunk and tail.
- The entire body surface except the feet is covered by feathers. The feet are covered by epidermal scutes
- The head has a pair of eyes, a pair of slit-like nostrils and a short beak.
- Eyes are large, rounded with movable eyelids and a nictitating membrane that is well developed.
- The forelimbs are modified into wings to take a flight.
- The hind limbs are pushed forward for bipedal locomotion. The digits end in claws.
- They have pneumatic bones. Teeth are absent and the skull is monocondylar.
Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
- The body can be distinguished into a head, trunk, neck and a small bushy tail.
- The entire body is covered with hair of black or brown colour
- The presence of two largely movable pinned behind the eyes. The colour of the eyes is pink.
- The mouth appears to have fleshy and soft lower and upper lips
- Sexual dimorphism is observed. Sexes are distinct and separate
- They possess the characteristic mammary glands, which end in nipples, located in the abdominal region.
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