A Brief History Of Early Medieval India (800 -1200 AD)

This article covers the topic which seems to be the most confusing for the majority of students. This is also the reason that it is the most underrated areas which makes it a very prospective area of questioning by the UPSC. This table below will give you a detailed idea of all you need to know to solve the prelims questions.

Gurjar Pratihara
Founder: Harishchandra

1st Ruler: Nagabhatta I

●  He made Ujjain as his capital and with this he started with the development of the Pratihara community

●  He defeated the Arab commander Junaid, who had attacked him

Nagabhatta II

● He is referred to as the real founder of the kingdom

●  He made Kannauj as his capital


●   Title: Prabhas

●   He was a follower of lord of Vishnu

●   He used to issue coins with the title:Adi Varah


●  He had a famous poet in his court named Rajshekhar

●  Rajshekhar’s books:

1. Karpur Manjari: A drama in Prakrit

2. Viddshalbhanjika: A drama in Sanskrit

Last ruler of the kingdom was Yashpal


Pal Dynasty
Founder: Gopal

● He established the Nalanda Vihara


● He was a part of the tripartite struggle fought between the three parties: Gurjar, Pratihara and Pal. It was a fight to capture Kannauj

● He established the Vikramshila Vihar which was later turned into university

● He built the Somapur Vihara in Bihar which today stands as a UNESCO heritage site

● He is said to have donated 200 villages to develop the Nalanda University

Mahipal II

● The Kaivarta community revolted during his reign


●  He had a  famous court poet named Sandhyakar Nandi who wrote Ramcharit


Sen Dynasty
Founder: Samant Sen

Hemant Sen

●  He is regarded as the real founder of the Sen dynasty

Vijay Sen

●  Title: Ariraj Vrishabh Shankar

Ballal Sen

●  Title: Ariraj Ni Shankar

●  He wrote Dan Sagar

●  He started working on a book called Adbudh Shastra, but could not complete it. It was later completed by his son Lakshamana Sen

Lakshaman Sen

●  Title: Ariraj Madan Shankar

●  He had a famous poet in his court named Jaidev who wrote the book Geet Govind


Chandel Dynasty
Founder: Nannuk


●  He established a Vishnu temple named Chaturbhuj at Khajuraho


● He is regarded as the real founder of the Chandel kingdom

● He established certain temples there like Vishwanath temple, Baikunth Nag Temple and Vaidnath Temple


●  He was the most powerful rulers amongst the Chandel rulers

●  Mahmud of Ghaznavi attacked twice during his reign


Chauhan Dynasty
It is a legend mentioned in the book Prithviraj Raso, that the dynasties of Chalukya, Parmar, Pratihar and Chauhan emerged from the fire pit of the yagna performed at Mt. Abu.

Founder: Vasudev

Singh Raj

● He is termed as the real founder of the dynasty

Ajay Raj

● He founded the city of Ajmer

● He had a picture of his queen Shaumalya Devi on the coins minted

Vigreya Raj IV (Beesal Deo)

●  A poet named Jayanak gave him the title of Kavi Bhandhav

●  He defeated the Tomars and occupied Delhi

●  He had a famous court poet named Somdev

●   He wrote a drama named Harikeli

●   One of his inscriptions can  be found on the Ashokan pillar at Topra

Prithvi Raj III

●  Title: Rai Pithora

●  In 1191, 1st battle of Tarain: defeated Mohd. Gauri

●  In the second battle of Tarain: He was defeated by Mohd. Gauri


●   The Turks took over Ajmer during his reign

Work done by their poets and authors :

1. Prithviraj Raso: Chandrabardai

2. Prithviraj Vijay: Jayanak Bhatt

3. Lalit Vigreya Raj: Somdev

4. Katha Sarit Sagar: Somdev

5.  Aalha Khand: Jagnik


Chalukya Dynasty (Gujarat)
Bhim I

● In 1025, Mahmud Ghaznabi attacked during his reign

● He established the Dilwara temple at Mt. Abu, which is a Jain temple

● It was built in the memory of Jain thirthankar, Vrishabh Dev

Jai Singh Siddh Raj

●  Title: Avanti Nath

●  He started the Siddh Samvat

●  He abolished the religious tax for ‘darshan’  in Somnath temple

Kumar Pal

● He had a famous poet in his court named Jai Singh Suri who wrote Kumar Pal Charit

Moolraj II

●  In 1178, he defeated Mohd. Gauri in the battle of Naharwala


Parmar Dynasty (Malwa)
Founder: Seeyak

Vakhpati Moonj

●  He had a court poet named Padm Gupt

●  He established a lake called ‘Moonj Sagar


● Title: Kaviraj

● He established his capital at a city called ‘Dhara’


Gaherwal Dynasty
Founder: Chandra Dev

He laid the dynasty’s foundation at Kannuaj

Govind Chandra Gaherwal

● He had a poet at his court named Lakshman Dhar

● He wrote a book named ‘Kritya Kalp Taru’

Jai Chand Gaherwal

●  He performed the  ‘Rajsuya’ Yagya

●  In 1194, he was defeated by Mohd. Gauri in the battle of Chandawar

● His court poet was Shri Harsha who wrote ‘Naishadh Charit’


Kalchuri Dynasty
Their rule was done under two branches. One branch was in Madhya Pradesh and the other in Uttar Pradesh. The dynasty was also known by the name of Haihaya and Chedi dynasty.

Founder: Kokalya

Yuvraj I

● He established the Chausath Yogini Temple at Bedaghat

Lakshmi Karna

● He is sometimes compared to Napoleon due to his victories

A Brief History of Medieval India – UPSC Notes:- Download PDF Here

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