Maharana Pratap

Pratap Singh, popularly known as the Maharana Pratap, was the 13th Maharana of Mewar known for his valiant and spirited defence against the Mughal Empire. He was one of the bravest Rajput rulers of India, who ruled Mewar in Rajasthan for 35 years. While other Rajput rulers accepted the supremacy of Akbar, he was one of the few rulers in Indian history who stood firm against the mighty Mughal Empire.

This year marks the 482nd birth anniversary of Maharana Pratap. According to the English calendar, Maharana Pratap Jayanti falls on 9 May. But in India, the warrior king’s birth anniversary is celebrated, as per the Hindu calendar, on the Tritiya tithi of Jyeshtha’s Shukla Paksha, which falls on 2 June. The day is observed as a public holiday in some states such as Rajasthan, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

This article will give details about Maharana Pratap within the context of the civil services examination.

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Early Life of Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap belonged to the Sisodia clan of the Rajputs of Mewar. He was born on 9th May 1540 to Udai Singh II and Jaiwanta Bai. His younger brothers were Shakti Singh, Vikram Singh and Jagmal Singh. Maharana Pratap was married to Ajabde Punwar of Bijolia.

Upon the death of Udai Singh in 1572 there was a brief tussle on who would succeed the throne of Mewar. Maharana Pratap had other stepbrothers who were also vying for the throne of Mewar. However, the senior nobles in his father’s court wanted Pratap Singh to succeed as he was the eldest son of Udai Singh II, thus Maharana Pratap took over the throne of Mewar’s royal family at the age of 32 on 1st March 1572.

Attempt previous year’s History Questions for UPSC Mains by visiting the linked article.

Battle of Haldighati

During the reign of Udai Singh II, the siege of Chittorgarh had led to the loss of the fertile eastern half of Mewar to the expansionist Mughal Empire. Yet the western half of Mewar which consisted of the wooded and hilly terrain near the Aravalli range was firmly under the control of the Sisodia Rajputs.

Mughal Emperor Akbar intended to secure the rest of Mewar to secure a stable route to the economic powerhouse of Gujarat. Upon the ascension of Maharana Pratap in 1572, Mughal Emperor Akbar sent many diplomatic missions to convince him to become a vassal of the Mughal Empire like the other Rajput rulers in the region had done so as Maharana Pratap refused to submit in person to Akbar, thus ensuring that war would be inevitable.

The forces of Mewar and the Mughal Empire met at the narrow mountain passes of Haldighati near modern-day Rajsamand in Rajasthan. As per the contemporary historians, the Army of Mewar of 3000 cavalry and 400 Bhil archers faced a Mughal Army numbering between 5000 and 1000 consisting of elephants and musketeers. The Battle of Haldighati lasted for six hours, which led to the defeat of Maharana Pratap. However, he beat a tactical retreat due to the sacrifice of his commanders and lived to fight another day.

The battle of Haldighati was a futile victory for the Mughals, as they were unable to capture Maharana Pratap or his immediate family members. When the Mughal Army shifted its focus towards the North-Western regions of India, Maharana Pratap launched a campaign to take back the western regions of Mewar.

Read in detail about the Battle of Haldighati in the linked article.

Candidates can find NCERT Ancient Indian History Notes in the linked article

Reconquest of Mewar

Due to rebellions in Bengal and Punjab, the Mughal Army had shifted its focus towards these regions. In 1582, Maharana Pratap attacked and took the Mughal post at Dawer. This led to a lightning campaign which saw the fall of all 36 Mughal outposts in Mewar. As a result, Emperor Akbar suspended any further campaigns against Mewar for the time being as he felt the Mughal Army was better put to better use elsewhere. The Emperor moved to Lahore and remained there for the next 12 years in order to maintain the situation in the north-western borders of his empire. 

Since no further expeditions were carried out in Mewar by the Mughals, Maharana Pratap undertook further campaigns of reconquest which saw the recovery of Kumbalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda. He constructed a new capital, Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.
Also read:

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Download NCERT Medieval Indian History Notes by visiting the linked article

Legacy of Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap passed away on 19 January 1597 aged 56. He was succeeded by his eldest son Amar Singh I. Notable historian such as Satish Chandra have said that Maharana Pratap’s struggle against the Mughal empire almost alone and unaided by other Rajput states signify the best of Rajput valour and the spirit of self-sacrifice. Furthermore, his method of guerrilla warfare would be further improved and emulated by none other than Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Birth of Shivaji Maharaji February 19, 1630) himself.

Read about the Maratha Empire in the linked article.

Frequently Asked Questions about Maharana Pratap


What is Maharana Pratap known for?

Maharana Pratap is known for his spirited defence agains Mughal expansionism, remaining a thorn on its side until his death

How did the Chavand School of Art came to be under Maharana Pratap’s patronage?

Maharana Prataps court at Chanvand had given shelter to many poets, artists, writers and artisans. The Chavand school of art was developed during the reign of Maharana Pratap

What was the name of the Marana Pratap’s loyal horse?

Maharana Pratap’s horse name was Chetak. Maharana Pratap Shared a very close bond with his horse.

Who won the Battle of Haldighati?

The battle of Haldighati was fought between Maharana Pratap and Mughals. Although Mughals won the Battle of Haldighati, it was a futile victory for the Mughals as they were unable to capture Maharana Pratap or his immediate family members.

When was Marana Pratap born?

As per the Hindu calendar, Maharana Pratap was born on the Tritiya tithi of Jyeshtha’s Shukla Paksha in the year 1540. According to the English calendar his birthday is celebrated on May 9.

Maharana Pratap UPSC Notes :-Download PDF Here

To know more in detail about the UPSC Syllabus, candidates can visit the linked article. Candidates can find more links related to UPSC exam preparation in the table given below:

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