Gene Editing

 

Genome editing, also known as gene editing is a kind of genetic engineering wherein the DNA is deleted, inserted or replaced in an organism’s genome. The technology used to bring about this generally uses ‘molecular scissors’ or ‘engineered nucleases’. These scissors make double-strand breaks (DSBs) at specific sites in the genome. The induced DBSs are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). This results in targeted mutations or ‘edits’. At present, there are four kinds of engineered nucleases namely, meganucleases, transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases (TALEN), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and CRISPR/Cas9 system.