The Golden Fibre Revolution

This article talks about the ‘Golden Fibre Revolution’ and says that the Golden Fibre revolution in India is related to Jute Production. The article will also walk you through the background of the revolution and problems associated with the Jute Industries in India.

Candidates willing to gain knowledge about other Agricultural Revolutions can check the links given below:

Green Revolution Golden Revolution Blue revolution
Pink Revolution Operation Greens  Operation Flood Or White Revolution

What is the Golden Fibre Revolution?

Jute is a natural fibre with a golden, soft, long, and silky shine. It is the cheapest fibre procured from the skin of the plant’s stem. Because of its colours and high cash value, Jute is known as a golden fibre. Hence, the Golden Fibre Revolution in India is related to jute production.

After cotton, jute is the most important vegetable fibre in consumption, production, usage, and availability. During the industrial revolution, jute started being used as a raw material in the fabric industry and until today, the processed jute is used for making strong threads and jute products.

Background of Jute Industry – Golden Fibre Revolution

Though jute was available in entire Southeast Asia the jute industry was one of the most prominent industries in undivided Bengal as the use of jute products was more widespread in undivided Bengal. Bengal being a riverine state is congenial for jute cultivation hence the rate of jute cultivation and production was high in Bengal. 

Furthermore, the British East India Company also started jute cultivation commercially and used jute-woven bags to distribute food grains all over the world for the same reason. Jute being one of the prized industries of Bengal created a special socio-economic environment for several decades and it still prevails. The economy rests on the growth of the jute industry, which is also reflected in the culture of Bengal.

India is the largest Jute producing country with annual production estimated to be around 1.986 million tonnes. The improvement in crop cultivation and the use of technology in jute farming has made India prominent in global production of Jute. West Bengal accounts for almost 50% of the country’s total jute production. Other major jute producing regions in the country include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya, and Orissa. 

India, along with the major producers, is also the largest consumer of jute and jute products in the world. So much so that it had to import around 337000 tonnes of Jute and jute products in the year 2011 to meet the domestic demands. 

Knowledge of Golden Fibre Revolution, the jute industry in India is important for the general awareness section of various competitive exams like Bank exams, SSC, RRB, insurance exam and other Government exams.

Aspirants of UPSC exam should prepare Operation Greens topic for Static GK section and Geography GS I Paper.

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Significance of the Golden Fibre Revolution

  • Jute increases the organic fertility of the soil for other crop plantations.
  • Organised processing and cultivation of jute help farmers to earn and save substantial money from carbon credits
  • the valuation of the carbon credit of jute cultivation is pinned at farmers’ savings made in purchasing inorganic fertilizer.
  • Renewable resource application of Jute has made it a key raw material in the paper industry.
  • burning one tonne of plastic bags emits 63 gigajoule of heat and 1,340 tonnes of carbon dioxide whereas burning one tonne of jute bags emits only 2-gigajoule heat and 150 kg carbon dioxide.

Need for Golden Fibre Revolution in India 

India’s first jute factory was established at Kolkata in 1854. India had a monopoly both in the production of raw jute as well as the jute products before independence. Post-independence, the jute industries in India are damaged due to several problems. The problems faced by Jute industries are mentioned below:

  • During the partition of India, most of Jute mills remained in India while major Jute producing areas went to Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). Thus, created the problem of a shortage of raw material. Despite the efforts of the Government to increase the area under Jute, India is not self-sufficient in raw material and has to import the same from Bangladesh and other countries.
  • The mills and machinery in the Jute industry in India are obsolete and need technological advancements. The Government of India in 2006 launched a Jute Technology Mission with four mini Missions that included jute research, development of raw jute agriculture and its extension; processing and marketing of raw jute. But this mission was unable to achieve targets and used the allocated funds. 
  • The jute industry in India has become stagnant, inefficient and unproductive due to non-diversification and over-dependence on jute sacks. The industries face serious competition in the global market with countries such as Bangladesh, South Korea,  Philippines, Japan, etc. The industry also loses competitiveness due to sickness in the Jute mills, obsolete technology, higher prices, etc. 
  • Jute industries in India are also facing decreasing demands for their produce. Jute products are fast losing market to synthetic fibres, plastic, and similar substitute products. To protect the Jute industry, parliament enacted the Jute Packaging Mandatory Act, 1987. The jute industry is reeling under the crisis caused by the shutdown of Jute mills.

A few important schemes that candidates must read about the textile development in India are linked below:

All these problems faced by the Jute industry in India necessitates the Golden Fibre Revolution to enhance the value of India’s Golden Fibre. 

Frequently Asked Questions on Golden Fibre Revolution


Q 1. Why was the Golden Fibre Revolution started in India?

Ans. The jute industry was one of the most prominent industries in undivided Bengal and till date India is one of the largest producers and consumers of jute in the world. This sector has been one of the greatest sources of socio-economic development of the country, thus, improvement and cultivation of jute is very important for India.

Q 2. What is known as Golden Fibre?

Ans. Jute is known as Golden Fibre.

Candidates preparing for UPSC 2022 must check the important links given below:

UPSC FAQ for IAS Exam UPSC Syllabus NCERT Notes
Current Affairs Online Quizzes Government Schemes


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