Different minerals embedded in rocks make up the earth’s crust. After adequate refining, metals are extracted from these minerals. Minerals are made up of homogeneous components. But rocks are usually made up of numerous minerals in various proportions. Only some rocks, such as limestone, are made up entirely of a single mineral.
Minerals can be found in the cracks, fissures, faults, and joints of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Veins are the lesser occurrences, whereas lodes are the bigger ones. To know more about minerals in India for IAS Exam, keep reading.
Read about Minerals and their characteristics for the upcoming UPSC CSE at the linked article.
IAS aspirants can also get answers to a few common questions about minerals and their characteristics at the links given below:
Major Mineral Producing States in India According to the Mineral Belts
In India, the majority of metallic minerals are found in ancient crystalline rocks on the peninsular plateau. Over 97% of coal deposits are found in the Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi, and Godavari basins. Petroleum deposits are found in the Assam, Gujarat, and Mumbai High sedimentary basins (located offshore in the Arabian Sea). In the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins, new deposits have been discovered. In India, minerals are concentrated in three large areas. There may be a few solitary occasional deposits here and there.
- Plateau Region, North-Eastern India: Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand), the Odisha Plateau, West Bengal, and sections of Chhattisgarh are included in this region. It has a wide range of minerals, including iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica.
- The South-Western Plateau: This belt runs across Karnataka, Goa, and the uplands of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Bauxite and ferrous metals are abundant in this zone. However, there’s also high-grade iron ore, manganese, and limestone in there. Except for Neyveli lignite, this area is densely packed with coal reserves. The mineral deposits in this area are not as diverse as those in the north-eastern belt. Kerala possesses monazite and thorium resources, as well as bauxite clay. Iron ore reserves are found in Goa.
- The North-Western Region: Minerals related to the Dharwar system of rocks are found along the Aravali mountains. Copper and zinc have always been important minerals. Rajasthan is abundant in construction materials such as sandstone, granite, and marble. There are also large reserves of gypsum and fuller earth. The cement industry uses dolomite and limestone found in this region as raw materials. Gujarat is well-known for its oil and gas reserves. Both Gujarat and Rajasthan have huge salt reserves.
- The Himalayan belt is known to have copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, and tungsten reserves. Mineral oil resources can be found in the Assam valley. Offshore locations along the Mumbai coast are also rich in oil resources (Mumbai High).
Prepare for UPSC 2022 and complement your preparation with the links given below:
List of Major Minerals in India
Below mentioned are some major minerals of India important for UPSC 2022:
- Iron ore
What are the harmful effects of mining on the environment you should know for your UPSC Prelims?
Following are the commonly observed harmful effects of mining:
i. Air, Soil, and Water Pollution:
- In mineral-rich areas, contaminated air with high particulate matter is a serious issue.
- The Makrana marble mines in Rajasthan have polluted the environment.
- The granite mines in Karnataka have left a large hole in the earth, and coal mining has severely polluted the Damodar river.
- Mining operations have resulted in the loss of biodiversity and cultural heritage.
- Water from streams and rivers turns acidic and is rendered unsafe for drinking.
ii. Mining of certain minerals such as mica, asbestos, etc., leads to severe illnesses such as fibrosis, pneumoconiosis, and silicosis in both workers and residents.
Candidates can get the latest exam updates, study material and preparation tips at BYJU’S.
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Frequently Asked Questions on Major Minerals In India UPSC
What have been the issues between mining activities and human settlements?
People become alienated and distrustful of the government machinery as a result of large-scale relocation, which leads to complaints and ineffective rehabilitation attempts. The local community loses more than simply land. They have to leave their tribal lifestyle and sometimes, even their rich cultural heritage. All these losses lead to agitation and uprisings from time to time.
What are major and minor minerals in India UPSC syllabus-wise?
The mining and quarrying industry is classified into two basic categories for estimating production value. The Central Government declares minor minerals under Section I (a) of the Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957. They are amended and published in the Indian Gazette on a regular basis. Coal, lignite, petroleum, and natural gas are examples of fuel minerals, whereas other significant minerals include metallic minerals such as atomic minerals and non-metallic minerals.