NCERT Notes: Second Anglo-Maratha War [Modern Indian History For UPSC]
NCERT notes on important topics for the IAS aspirants. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Second Anglo-Maratha War.
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There were three Anglo-Maratha wars (or Maratha Wars) fought between the late 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century between the British and the Marathas. In the end, the Maratha power was destroyed and British supremacy established.
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 – 1805)
Background and course
After Tipu Sultan’s Mysore was captured by the British in 1799, the Marathas were the only major Indian power left outside of British domination.
At that time, the Maratha Confederacy consisted of five major chiefs, the Peshwas at Pune, the Gaekwads at Baroda, the Holkars at Indore, the Scindias at Gwalior and the Bhonsles at Nagpur.
There were internal squabbles among themselves.
Baji Rao II (son of Raghunathrao) was installed as the Peshwa after the death of Madhavrao II.
In the Battle of Poona in 1802, Yashwantrao Holkar, the chief of the Holkars of Indore defeated the Peshwas and the Scindias.
Baji Rao II sought British protection and signed the Treaty of Bassein with them.
As per this treaty, he ceded territory to the British and agreed to the maintenance of British troops there.
The Scindias and the Bhonsles did not accept this treaty and this caused the second Anglo-Maratha war in central India in 1803.
The Holkars also joined the battle against the English at a later stage.
Result of Second Anglo Maratha War
All the Maratha forces were defeated by the British in these battles.
The Scindias signed the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon in 1803 through which the British got the territories of Rohtak, Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Gurgaon, Delhi Agra region, Broach, some districts in Gujarat, parts of Bundelkhand and Ahmadnagar fort.
The Bhonsles signed the Treaty of Deogaon in 1803 as per which the English acquired Cuttack, Balasore and area west of Wardha River.
The Holkars signed the Treaty of Rajghat in 1805 according to which they gave up Tonk, Bundi and Rampura to the British.
As a result of the war, large parts of central India came under British control.
Frequently Asked Questions about Second Anglo-Maratha War
What was the main cause of the Second Anglo-Maratha war?
The main cause of the second Maratha war due to the defeat of the peshwa Baji Rao II by the Holkars, one of the prominent Maratha clans, as a result of which he accepted British protection by signing the Treaty of Bassein in December 1802.
What was the consequence of the Second Anglo-Maratha War?
The defeat in Second Anglo Maratha War proved to be disastrous for the Marathas as they lost vast and rich territories.