NCERT Notes: Anglo-Mysore Wars - I, II [Modern Indian History Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the First and Second Anglo-Mysore Wars.

The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of four wars between the British and the Kingdom of Mysore in the latter half of the 18th century in Southern India.

Hyder Ali (1721 – 1782)
  • Started his career as a soldier in the Mysore Army.
  • Soon rose to prominence in the army owing to his military skills.
  • He was made the Dalavayi (commander-in-chief), and later the Chief Minister of the Mysore state under Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, ruler of Mysore.
  • Through his administrative prowess and military skills, he became the de-facto ruler of Mysore with the real king reduced to a titular head only.
  • He set up a modern army and trained them along European lines.

 

First Anglo-Mysore War (1767 – 1769)
 Causes of the war: 
  • Hyder Ali built a strong army and annexed many regions in the South including Bidnur, Canara, Sera, Malabar and Sunda.
  • He also took French support in training his army.
  • This alarmed the British.
Course of the war: 
  • The British, along with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad declared war on Mysore.
  • Hyder Ali was able to bring the Marathas and the Nizam to his side with skillful diplomacy.
  • But the British under General Smith defeated Ali in 1767.
  • His son Tipu Sultan advanced towards Madras against the English.
Result of the war: 
  • In 1769, the Treaty of Madras was signed which brought an end to the war.
  • The conquered territories were restored to each other.
  • It was also agreed upon that they would help each other in case of a foreign attack.
Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780 – 1784)
Causes of the war: 
  • The Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771. But the British refused to honour the Treaty of Madras and did not give support to Hyder Ali.
  • As a result, Hyder Ali’s territories were taken by the Marathas. He had to buy peace with the Marathas for a sum of Rs.36 lakh and another annual tribute.
  • This angered Hyder Ali who started hating the British.
  • When the English attacked Mahe, a French possession under Hyder Ali’s dominion, he declared war on the English in 1780.
Course of the war: 
  • Hyder Ali forged an alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas and defeated the British forces in Arcot.
  • Hyder Ali died in 1782 and the war was continued by his son Tipu Sultan.
  • Sir Eyre Coote, who had earlier defeated Hyder Ali many times, ended the war inconclusively with the Treaty of Mangalore.  
Result of the war: 
  • As per the Treaty of Mangalore, both parties agreed to return the captured territories and prisoners to each other.

 

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2 Comments

  1. What is second anglo sikh war

    1. Hi, you can find a summary of the 2nd Anglo Sikh War here.

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