Indian Nuclear policies were formulated keeping in mind the security aspect as well as the aspect of constructive peaceful use of nuclear technology. Although India has not signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and only partially committed to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, India has its policies to assert its relevance in the global nuclear dialogue. The 2 important policies are given below.
- No First Use (NFU) – It is a nuclear doctrine formulated in 2003, that India would never use nuclear weapons first but with a caveat that if attacked by nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, India reserves the right to retaliate with nuclear weapons. This policy has been used as a proof that India is a responsible nuclear power.
- Negative Security Assurance (NSA) – It is an assurance by India that India will never use nuclear weapons against a state that does not possess nuclear weapons.
Aspirants would find this topic very helpful in the IAS Exam.
What is NPT?
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is an international agreement between 190 nations to prevent the proliferation of nuclear technology and weapons. It was an agreement signed in 1968, and came into force in 1970. One of the primary objectives of this treaty is to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy. NPT defines nuclear-weapon states as those countries that built and tested nuclear explosive devices before January 1, 1967.
Which are the Countries that have Not Signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?
5 countries have not signed the NPT treaty and the list of countries is given below.
- North Korea
- South Sudan
What is NSG?
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multilateral organization of a group of nuclear exporting countries working together on controlling the exports of materials, equipment, and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. NSG was formed in the year 1974. NSG was formed in response to the Nuclear Weapons test carried out by India in the year 1974. India’s entry into NSG has been supported by many nations, but every attempt of India’s entry into the exclusive club has been thwarted by China. As per 2019, 48 nations are members of NSG.
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