How to Approach Post-Independence Indian History for UPSC?

The post-independence history of India is a topic in the UPSC mains GS paper I. The syllabus simply says, ‘Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country’. It does not specify any sub-heading or topics for the candidates to read about. And, since it has been 73 years since 1947 when the country achieved its freedom from colonial rule, there have been many events that have shaped the way India is progressing onwards. In this article, we have created topics and subtopics under the topic post-independence Indian history so that you can streamline your IAS exam preparation.

One of the best books for the study of this topic is Bipan Chandra’s ‘India since Independence’. You can also watch the episodes of the TV show ‘Pradhan Mantri’ aired on the national channel for valuable information in an interesting manner.

How to study post-independence history for UPSC?

India Since Independence

The topics under this section have been divided into various eras as given below.

Nehruvian Era

  1. Aftermath of partition
  2. Integration of the princely states
  3. Issue of the official language (this recurs in most eras)
  4. Reorganisation of states
  5. Tribal consolidation and issues
  6. The foreign policy of Pandit Nehru

PM Shastri Era

  1. Official language issue
  2. Food shortage
  3. Economic crisis
  4. Indo-Pak war

PM Indira Gandhi Era

  1. Official language
  2. Split in congress (diminishing of Congress hegemony in regions)
  3. Issue of inflation
  4. Green revolution
  5. Punjab crisis – Operation Blue Star
  6. Land reforms
  7. Bank nationalisation
  8. Emergency
  9. Naxal movement
  10. 1971 war with Pakistan
  11. Janta movement

PM Rajiv Gandhi Era

  1. Environment (focus on this topic for the first time by the government)
  2. Anti-defection law
  3. Women movements – Dowry Prohibition Act, Shah Bano case
  4. Modernisation of army
  5. Panchayati Raj

You can get comprehensive NCERT Notes for history from the links below:

NCERT Notes: Ancient Indian History Notes For UPSC
NCERT Notes: Medieval Indian History Notes For UPSC
NCERT Notes: Modern Indian History Notes For UPSC

Post-1991 Era

The post-1991 era or the era of liberalization era involves the time of Prime Ministers V P Singh, Narasimha Rao, etc. You should read about coalition politics, the Mandal Commission, and other issues.

It is recommended that you make notes as and when you read these topics. Many of the issues here are contemporary issues as well or have ramifications that are still affecting the country. So, look out for current issues pertaining to these issues in the newspapers or in the news discussions.

Related Links:

UPSC Mains: Key Tips to cover Bipan Chandra’s ‘India’s Struggle for Independence’ Complete List of NCERT Books needed for UPSC Preparation
NCERT Notes For UPSC Bipin Chandra Books for UPSC



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