Terminologies Related to Rivers

The terminology related to the rivers is important for UPSC IAS Prelims and mains examination. The terminologies related to the river have been asked for Prelims examination and it is a part of Geography optional subject for UPSC Civil Services Mains Examination. This basic knowledge should be known to an aspirant with geography optional for UPSC Civil Services Examination.

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Term

Meaning

Abrasion

Form of erosion occurred by the rubbing of fine particles against an object.

Alluvium

Any material deposited by a river.

Bank

The ground at the side of a river.

Drainage basin

The area of land that is drained by a river and its tributaries.

Riverbed

The riverbed is the bottom of the water body.


Brackish

Water that is saline than river water but less saline than sea water.

Channel

An area that encompasses flowing water narrowed by banks.

Delta

This is a triangular-shaped silty area at the mouth of a river at which the river divides into many various slow-flowing channels that have mud-covered banks.

Effluent

Wastewater that flows from a factory or other sources.

Estuary

The area where fresh water from the river meets salt water from the sea, where a river meets the ocean or sea.

Headwaters

Streams and rivers that are the sources of rivers or streams.

Hydrologic cycle

Another name for the water cycle.

Meander

Something that follows a zigzagging path.

Mouth

The mouth is the end of a river, where it drains into a large water body.

Oxbow lake

U-shaped water body that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, making a separate water body.

Rill

A very small channel of water, produced mainly by runoff water that eroded the soil.

Riparian

Related to or Situated by the banks of a river, stream, or other water bodies.

Riverine

It means relating to, or formed by a river.

Runoff

It is water that drains into a river from uncontrolled tributaries, drains, etc.

Salinity

The amount of salt dissolved in water.

Sediment

It is small particles of soil or rocks that are carried by water or the wind.

Silt

Silt is very tiny particles of soil or rocks that are 3 to 60 micrometres in diameter.

Siltation

The deposit or accumulation of very minute soil particles.

Source

Beginning of a stream or river.

Tributary

A river or stream that flows into another stream, river, or lake.

Trunk

The main course of the river.

Watershed

The land that empties water into a specific river.

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