Partition of Bengal Approval - [July 20, 1905] This Day in History

First Partition of Bengal is approved in London by the Secretary of State of India. The minute of Lord Curzon on territorial redistribution was written on 1st June 1903. On 2nd February, the final scheme of Bengal division was sent for sanction to London home authorities. On 19th July 1905, the British Indian Government announced the break the Bengal which finally took place on 16th October 1905.

The topic is important concerning history syllabus of the IAS Exam.

Aspirants can cover the topics mentioned in the UPSC Syllabus by following the below-mentioned links:

Lord Curzon & Partition of Bengal

Lord Curzon was the viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905. His attacks on Bengal through various ways have been listed down below:

  1. The reduction in the number of elected members in Calcutta Corporation – In 1899, Curzon reduced th elected members in Corporation of Calcutta intended to satisfy European business interests in the city.
  2. Attack on the autonomy of the Calcutta University – Curzon passed Universities Act 1904. The number of elected members in the senate was reduced. The power to provide grant-in-aid and affiliations were given to the government officials.
  3.  Partition of Bengal – In 1905, Partition of Bengal was announced.

Related Links:

List of Viceroys in India Robert Clive
Bengal Sultanate Bengal Famine
Lord Cornwallis Warren Hastings
Swadeshi Movement Bengal Gazette

Background:

  • The decision to partition the state of Bengal was announced by Lord Curzon, the then Viceroy of India in July 1905.
  • This partition came into effect in October 1905
  • Lord Curzon, the architect of the partition, knew that splitting Bengal, would weaken their influence and divide the nationalist movement.

What Immediately Followed:

  • After the announcement was made in July 1905, leaders in Bengal urged the people to boycott British goods.
  • They wanted to put economic pressure on England.
  • Students forced shopkeepers to stop selling British goods. They also boycotted government schools and colleges.
  • All classes of Bengali’s participated in the anti-partition movement.
  • October 16, 1905, was a day of national mourning. People fasted and observed a general strike.
  • The song “ Amar Sonar Bangla”, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, was sung by many. Many were seen walking barefoot to the Ganga singing Vande Mataram. Hindus and Muslims tied rakhis on each other’s hand as a symbol of unity.

Read in detail about the background of the Bengal Partition, reactions towards it and its annulment in 1911 from our post on Partition of Bengal 1905.

UPSC Preparation:

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UPSC Prelims UPSC Previous Years’ Question Papers
History Questions from UPSC Mains GS 1 UPSC Mains GS 1 Strategy, Syllabus and Structure

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