07 Aug 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 11

CNA 07 Aug 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
INDIAN GEOGRAPHY
1. ‘Nadis’ of Rajasthan
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT
1. Indian Virtual Herbarium
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Data law delay
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. How will the 5G auction impact the sector?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Rock Agama
G. Tidbits
1. New Vice-President
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

FIP Magazine

Category: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. How will the 5G auction impact the sector?

Syllabus: Recent developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

Mains: 5G spectrum Auction.

Context: The auction of telecom spectrum, including bands offering fifth generation (5G) technology services.

Telecommunication Sector:

  • It is a price-sensitive and competitive market. 
  • It is capital-intensive and has to constantly invest in upgrading technologies and services.

 Details of the Auction:

  • Auction was held for three Bands of Spectrum:
    • Low Band (consisting 600, 700, 800, 900, 1800, 2,100 and 2,500 MHz bands)
      • Provides wider coverage.
      • Speed is subject to the proximity to the source.
      • Signals from the low-band spectrum can penetrate windows and walls.
    • Mid Band (3,300 MHz)
      • The mid-band spectrum falls between low and high bands in terms of speed and coverage. It can carry sizable data over longer distances and maintain increased speeds.
    • High Band (26 GHz — 1 GHz equals 1000 Mhz) 
        • It is unable to travel long distances.
        • It provides speeds of up to two Gbps.
  • 71% of the 72,098 MHz of spectrum on offer was sold.
  • 76% and 72% of the available spectrum in mid and the high-band respectively was sold.
  • Reliance Jio emerged as the top bidder with Bharti Airtel bagging the second position.
  • This time, Jio emerged as the sole entity to buy ‘premium band’ 
    • Premium bands are known to improve indoor and rural coverage.
    • It possesses the ability to penetrate through walls and properties more effectively. 
  • Latest entrant to the sector was Adani Data Networks.
    • It aims to provide private network solutions with enhanced cyber security in its airport, ports and logistics, power generations, transmission, distribution and various manufacturing operations.
  • Except for one circle in the 1,800 MHz band, spectrum was sold at the reserve price.
    • A reserve price is a minimum price that a seller wishes to accept from a buyer. If the reserve price is not met, the seller is under no obligation to sell it, even to the highest bidder.
    • The reserve price is recommended by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.
    • A significant share of the bidding was at the reserve prices reflecting the sense of competitiveness among the bidders.

Usage of spectrum:

  • The 3,300 MHz band will be used for 5G technology deployment.
  • The 1,800 MHz band is demanded due to rising mobile broadband usage and thus improving network capacity.

Post-auction outlook for the industry:

  • The latest spectrum purchase will further raise the debt  to about ₹6.1 lakh crore. 
  • This would directly have a bearing on the premium levied from 4G services resulting in increase in rates (for 4G services) in the current fiscal. 

Future of 5G implementation:

  • The mass roll-out of 5G may happen in the next fiscal year as telcos are required to upgrade fiberisation. 
  • The telcos are also required to launch commercial services in at least one city of each circle by the end of the first year of acquiring the license, as per roll-out obligations.

The  debt situation of Telcos:

  • ICRA has highlighted that the cash flow being generated from business was improving. 
  • The latest auction would further improve the sector’s operational viability by lowering the repayment burden.
  • Measures taken to ensure robust financial situation:
    • For the first time ever, there was no mandatory requirement for any upfront payment.
    •  The payment for the spectrum can be made in 20 equal annual installments in advance at the beginning of each year. This can potentially lower the operating costs for telcos.

Concern with the 5G rollout:

5G rollout has less for rural India as operators would like to opt for areas where they can generate adequate returns.

Nut Graf:  The auction of spectrum has shown a positive stance of industry towards the rollout of 5G technology. This has further raised the bar for successful technology upgradation in the coming few years with robust strides in the field of science and technology.

For more information on 5G read here: 5G RSTV – In Depth, Discussion on 5G revolution in India for UPSC

For more information on 5G spectrum auction read here: 05 Aug 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

G. Tidbits

1. New Vice-President

  • Jagdeep Dhankhar was elected as 14th Vice-President of India.
  • He secured 528 votes out of the 710 valid votes in the 16th Vice-Presidential election.
  • He served as governor of West Bengal from 2019-2022.

Read more on powers and functions of the Vice President of India

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following statements: (Level-Medium )
  1. According to the law, life imprisonment means incarceration for a term not exceeding fourteen years.
  2. When any person has been sentenced to punishment for an offense, the appropriate Government may, at any time, without Conditions or upon any conditions which the person sentenced accepts, suspend the execution of his sentence or remit the whole or any part of the punishment to which he has been sentenced.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, Life imprisonment was added to Indian Penal Code (IPC) through an amendment in 1955. 
    • It applies to serious crimes. Compared with legal alternatives to the death penalty, life imprisonment is generally considered more humane and less harsh. 
    • Life imprisonment means staying in prison until the offender dies, that is, until the offender stops breathing and it is not just 14 years.
  • Statement 02 is correct, Section 432 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 gives government the power to suspend or remit sentences.
Q2. With respect to the Right to Information Act, which of the following statements
 is/are Correct? (Level-Hard)
  1. RTI Act mandates every public authority to disclose information on a suo motu basis to the public at regular intervals.
  2. If information sought concerns the life or liberty of a person, it shall be supplied within four weeks.
  3. The Act will not apply to the intelligence and security organizations under all circumstances

  Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 is correct,  Public authorities which includes all authorities and bodies under the union government, state government or local bodies. The civil societies that are substantially funded, directly or indirectly, by the public funds also fall within the ambit of RTI and they have to maintain and proactively disclose information on suo moto basis.
  • Statement 02 is incorrect, information in normal course is to be given within 30 days from the receipt of application by the public authority.
    • If information sought concerns the life or liberty of a person, it shall be supplied within 48 hours.
  • Statement 03 is incorrect, according to section 24 , the act does not apply to the intelligence and security organizations specified in the Second Schedule of the act. But, information regarding allegations of corruption and human rights violations shall not be excluded under this sub‑section.

Read more on RTI ACT 

Q3. Which of the following statements with respect to Kondapalli Toys is/are 
correct? (Level-Medium)
  1. The Toys are made of wood in Kondapalli in the state of Telangana
  2. They have been granted the Geographical Indications (GI) tag

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, Kondapalli Toys, made of wood belongs to Kondapalli village in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
    • These toys are decorated in the households during the festivals of Navratri and Sankranti and are referred as Bommala Koluvu.
  • Statement 02 is correct, they have been granted the Geographical Indications (GI) tag.
Kondapalli Toys

Image Credit: Hashtag Magazine

Q4. Consider the following statements with respect to Amicus curiae:
  1. The decision whether to admit the information given by the Amicus curiae lies with the discretion of the court.
  2. Amicus curiae can be appointed in both civil and criminal cases

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, An amicus curiae literally translates to “friend of the court”. He/She is an individual or organization who is not a party to a legal case, but who is permitted to assist a court  by offering expertise that has a bearing on the issues in the case.
    • The decision on whether to consider an amicus brief lies within the discretion of the court.
  • Statement 02 is correct, The most common area of need of amicus curiae is in cases that are under appeal, or issue of public interest litigation and they can be appointed in both civil and criminal cases.
Q5. With reference to the United Nations General Assembly, consider the following
 statements :
  1. The UN General Assembly can grant observer status in the non-member States.
  2. Inter-governmental organizations can seek observer status in the UN General Assembly.
  3. Permanent Observes in the UN General Assembly can maintain missions at the UN headquarters.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation: 

  • Statement 01 and 02 is correct, The UNGA may grant international organizations, non-member states and other entities Permanent Observer Status.
  • \Statement 03 is correct, Permanent Observers may participate in the sessions and workings of the UNGA and maintain missions at the UN Headquarters.

Read more on UNGA

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Write a note on the journey of the Personal Data Protection Bill and explain why the government withdrew the Bill. (10 Marks, 150 Words)  ( GS 02-Governance)
  2. Will 5G launch in India help improve the debt situation of telecom providers? Critically Examine.  (10 Marks, 150 Words)( GS 03-Economy)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 07 Aug 2022:- Download PDF Here

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