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29 Jan 2023: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 29 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
ART AND CULTURE
1. Sundarbans temple
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. Researchers offer tips to save Kerala’s sinking island
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
F. Prelims Facts
1. Sources of Air Pollution
G. Tidbits
1. Noble’s Helen
2. Mughal Gardens
3. Titanosaurs
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

G. Tidbits

1. Noble’s Helen

  • A swallowtail butterfly has been recorded for the first time in India.
  • These “extremely rare” Noble’s Helen (Papilio noblei) butterflies were recorded from three locations in the Namdapha National Park of Arunachal Pradesh in  September 2021.
  • The Noble’s Helen, closest to Papilio antonio from the Philippines and characterised by a large dorsal white spot, was once common in the montane forest at moderate elevations in northern Thailand. 
  • This species of swallowtail butterfly has also been reported from the Myanmar, Yunnan and Hubai regions of China, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. 
    • The species are slowly disappearing in the ranges it was previously recorded.
  • Butterflies are distributed worldwide except Antarctica, totalling some 18,500 species. They are considered vital indicators of the state of biodiversity and key ecosystem functions.
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Image Source: The Hindu

2. Mughal Gardens

  • The Rashtrapati Bhavan gardens, popularly known as the Mughal Gardens, was renamed ‘Amrit Udyan’ on January 28,2023 as part of the “Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav” celebrations.
  • It was designed by Edwin Lutyens, spreading across 15 acres, it incorporates both Mughal and English landscaping styles. 
  • It draws its inspiration from the Mughal Gardens in Jammu and Kashmir, the gardens around the Taj Mahal and even miniature paintings of India and Persia.
  • The main garden has two channels intersecting at right angles dividing the garden into a grid of squares — a Charbagh (a four-cornered garden) — a typical characteristic of the Mughal landscaping. 
    • The charbagh structure was intended to create a representation of an earthly utopia – jannat – in which humans co-exist in perfect harmony with all elements of nature.
    • From the gardens surrounding Humanyun’s Tomb in Delhi to the Nishat Bagh in Srinagar, all are built in this style – giving them the moniker of Mughal Gardens.
  • There are six lotus-shaped fountains at the crossings of these channels rising to a height of 12 feet. The garden houses nearly 2,500 varieties of dahlias and 120 varieties of roses.
    • Rose varieties  include Adora, Mrinalini, Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower, Scentimental, Oklahoma (also called Black Rose), Black Lady, Blue Moon and Lady X. There are also roses named after personalities: Mother Teresa, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Abraham Lincoln, Jawahar Lal Nehru, and Queen Elizabeth.
  • The garden is thrown open to the public for a limited period during spring each year.

3. Titanosaurs

  • In central India’s Narmada Valley, researchers discovered 92 nesting sites containing a total of 256 fossil eggs belonging to titanosaurs, which were among the largest dinosaurs to ever live.
  • The Lameta Formation, located in the Narmada Valley, is well-known for fossils of dinosaur skeletons and eggs of the Late Cretaceous Period that lasted from about 145 to 66 million years ago.
  • Based on the layout of the nests,it is inferred that these dinosaurs buried their eggs in shallow pits like modern-day crocodiles.
  • Certain pathologies discovered in the eggs, such as a rare case of “egg-in-egg,” suggest that titanosaur sauropods had a reproductive physiology similar to birds and may have laid their eggs sequentially, as seen in modern birds.
  • The presence of multiple nests in the same area suggests that these dinosaurs, like modern birds, engaged in colonial nesting behaviour.
  • The close spacing of the nests, on the other hand, left little room for adult dinosaurs, lending credence to the theory that adults abandoned the hatchlings (newborns) to fend for themselves.
  • The findings contribute significantly to palaeontologists’ understanding of how dinosaurs lived and evolved.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Consider the following Pairs: (Level-Difficult)

            Traditional Theatre                                   State

  1. Maach                                                             Madhya Pradesh
  2. Shumang Leela                                           Assam
  3. Tamasha                                                         Maharashtra
  4. Therukoothu                                                  Kerala

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Pair 01 is correctly matched, Maach is a prominent folk theatre form of Madhya Pradesh and historical findings suggest that it has been an integral part of the local culture of the Malwa region since the early eighteenth century, making it a 200–250-year-old art form.
  • Pair 02 is incorrectly matched, Shumang Kumhei also known as Shumang Leela (Meitei for ‘Courtyard Play’), is a Meitei traditional form of theatre, usually performed in Manipur.
  • Pair 03 is correctly matched, Tamasha is a traditional form of Marathi theatre, often with singing and dancing, widely performed by local or travelling theatre groups within the state of Maharashtra.
  • Pair 04 is incorrectly matched, Therukoothuis a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.
Q2. Consider the following statements: (Level-Medium)
  1. Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the State of Bihar
  2. In a Wildlife Sanctuary Human activities are not allowed.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is correct, Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary in Jharkhand. The Hazaribagh National Park was established in 1955. It was demoted to the status of a wildlife sanctuary in 1976.
  • Statement 02 is correct, A highly restricted human activity is allowed in wildlife sanctuaries. The hunting and poaching of animals are strictly banned as well as trees and plants cannot be cut down for agriculture or any other application. There are no clearly carved out boundaries or fencing to prohibit people from entering into wildlife sanctuaries. Individuals are allowed to walk through wildlife sanctuaries for educational, recreational, or research reasons. 

Read more on Difference between National Park and Wildlife sanctuary

Q3. Which of the following is/are correctly matched? (Level-Difficult)

                      Fighter Aircraft                                    Origin

  1. Mirage 2000                                                               Russia
  2. Sukhoi Su-30                                                              France
  3. SEPECAT Jaguar                                               United Kingdom

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Pair 01 is incorrectly matched, The Dassault Mirage 2000 is a French multirole, single-engine, fourth-generation jet fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
  • Pair 02 is incorrectly matched, The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Russia’s Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.
  • Pair 03 is correctly matched, The SEPECAT Jaguar is an Anglo-French jet attack aircraft originally used by the British Royal Air Force and the French Air Force in the close air support and nuclear strike role. It is still in service with the Indian Air Force.
Q4.  Assertion (A): Rajasthan has the highest goat population in the country.
     Reason(R): With the expansion of desert in Rajasthan, people shift from 
     agriculture and cattle rearing to goat rearing because goats can survive in 
     harsh environments. (Level-Difficult)

Codes:
  1. Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
  2. Both A and R are individually true and R is not the correct explanation of A
  3. A is true but R is false
  4. A is false but R is true
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Rajasthan has the highest goat population in the country.

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  • With the expansion of desert in Rajasthan, numerous small and medium farmers shift from agriculture and cattle rearing to goat rearing because goats can survive in harsh environments.
    • Goat rearing is not capital intensive, hence easy to start. The partially denuded Aravali hills provide free grazing ground; that saves close to 70 per cent of the rearing cost.
Q5. Consider the following statements: (PYQ-CSE-2007)(Level-Difficult)
  1. In India, Red Panda is naturally found in the western Himalayas only
  2. In India, slow Loris lives in the dense forests of the North East.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Statement 01 is incorrect, The red panda is endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas, and ranges from the foothills of western Nepal to China in the east. Its range includes southern Tibet, Sikkim and Assam in India, Bhutan, the northern mountains of Burma, and in south western China, in the Hengduan Mountains of Sichuan and the Gongshan Mountains in Yunnan.
  • Statement 02 is correct, in India, Slow Loris lives in the dense forests of the North East. The Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) or northern slow loris is a strepsirrhine primate and a species of slow loris native to the Indian subcontinent and Indochina.

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 29 Jan 2023:- Download PDF Here

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