22 July 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 22nd July 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. HC stays Arunachal’s entry permit notification
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. U.K. wants new trade deal for N. Ireland
C. GS 3 Related
INTERNAL SECURITY
1. India signed 26 pacts to fight drug menace
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. India must directly engage with Taliban 2.0
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. Water as woe
F. Prelims Facts
1. Lightweight anti-tank missile tested by DRDO
2. A leaping Tequila fish
3. Ain’t no mountain high enough
G. Tidbits
1. Climate cooperation depends on overall ties, China tells U.S.
2. 25 killed, dams damaged in record flooding in central China
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. U.K. wants new trade deal for N. Ireland

Context:

  • After rioting and business disruption hit the province of Northern Ireland, the U.K. has demanded the European Union to renegotiate the Northern Ireland Protocol – post-Brexit trading arrangements for Northern Ireland.

Background:

Northern Ireland Protocol:

  • The protocol aimed to avoid a hard border between Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, which remains part of the EU, by effectively keeping Northern Ireland in the EU’s single market.

Details:

Britain’s concerns:

  • The Northern Ireland Protocol requires checks on goods arriving from mainland Britain. Many pro-U.K. supporters see it as creating a de facto border in the Irish Sea with mainland Britain.
  • Faced with all the new bureaucracy, some British companies have stopped supplying stores in Northern Ireland, saying they simply can’t handle the added paperwork now needed.

EU’s response:

  • The EU has rejected the offer and ruled out any renegotiation. It has instead offered to seek creative solutions, within the framework of the Protocol.

Category: DISASTER MANAGEMENT

1. Water as woe

Context:

  • Extensive flooding in the city of Mumbai has led to the loss of life and property.

Background:

Urban floods:

  • Urban flooding has been a recurrent phenomenon in Indian cities like Mumbai, Chennai and Hyderabad.
  • Mumbai has been especially witnessing such floods with high frequency and intensity over the recent past.

For more information refer to:

Urban Flooding

Factors contributing to urban floods:

Impact of climate change:

  • The volume and duration of monsoonal rain are turning unpredictable, due to climate change.
  • Such intermittent torrents will only become more frequent, influenced by a warming climate. Such intermittent torrents contribute to floods in the cities.

Lack of required infrastructure:

  • Basic infrastructure including drainage is absent or highly inadequate in most cities. The available infrastructure is not capable of accommodating intense monsoons.
  • The lack of regular maintenance of even this limited infrastructure reduces their capability to handle even the designed quantity of flows.

Unplanned urbanization:

  • Unplanned urbanization results in the development of slums. Such areas are more prone to urban flooding and landslides.

Encroachments:

  • The city’s rivers and lakes which act as natural water sinks are being encroached upon. This impacts their ability to absorb the rainwater runoff and thus contributes to urban flooding.

Measures taken up by the government:

  • An urban flood management plan has been drawn up by the National Disaster Management Authority for the cities to implement.
  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has also released the first dedicated stormwater drainage manual for effective flow management of stormwater.
  • Sponge Cities Mission is an important intervention to decrease the vulnerability of cities to urban flooding.

For more information on sponge cities mission refer to the following article:

Sponge Cities Mission In India

Recommendations:

  • There is a need for a strict law to regulate the encroachment of river and lake beds in urban areas. Also, the existing encroachments must be removed from the city’s rivers and lakes.
  • The cities should also focus on developing the existing lakes apart from creating fresh holding lakes for excess waters from rains.
  • The government should rehabilitate those who live in risky locations as this will help decrease the vulnerability to urban floods.
  • Given the risks posed by the unplanned growth of cities, cities should focus on planned urban growth and adequate infrastructure in the form of drainage and housing.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Lightweight anti-tank missile tested by DRDO

Context:

  • A new generation of Akash surface-to-air missile and indigenously developed Anti-Tank Missiles were successfully flight-tested by the DRDO from an integrated test range off the Odisha coast.

Akash missile:

  • Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited.
  • The new variant of the Akash missile (Akash-NG) has a slightly better range compared to the original version that can strike targets at a distance of around 25 km. This will help boost the air defence capabilities of the IAF.

Anti Tank missile:

  • The MPATGM, or Man Portable Anti-Tank Guided Missile, is an Indian third-generation fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile derived from Nag ATGM. 
  • It has been indigenously developed.

2. A leaping Tequila fish

Kakapo:

  • The kakapo, also called owl parrot, is a species of large, flightless, nocturnal, ground-dwelling parrot endemic to New Zealand.
  • It is the world’s only flightless parrot.

3. Ain’t no mountain high enough

  • Gei-ü (pronounced Jee-uh) is a three-stringed musical instrument invented by Naga folk musician-luthier Atso Chasie.
  • The Gei-Ü has three strings, one for plucking and two for bowing. It is made from bamboo and local wood.

G. Tidbits

1. Climate cooperation depends on overall ties, China tells U.S.

  • China, the largest emitter of Green House Gases in the world, aims to peak carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
  • The U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate, John Kerry, has warned that China’s commitment to peak emissions by 2030 was not sufficient to ensure a 1.5 degree Celsius global warming target.

2. 25 killed, dams damaged in record flooding in central China

  • Record rains in central China have resulted in extensive flooding in the region.
    • Zhengzhou, the capital city of Henan province, received 87% of annual precipitation in 24 hours.
  • At least 25 people were reported killed and tens of thousands relocated.
  • The flooding has caused extensive damage, including to dams that officials fear are on the verge of bursting.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the given statements best describes the “Kafala System”?
  1. A system for monitoring the migrant labourers followed in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.
  2. An informal and illegal method of transferring money without any physical money actually moving.
  3. The common systematic law on the administrative procedure adopted by governments of Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
  4. Sharia-compliant interest-free banking system.
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Kafala System is a system used to monitor migrant labourers, working primarily in the construction and domestic sectors in Gulf Cooperation Council member states and a few neighbouring countries, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The system requires all unskilled labourers to have an in-country sponsor, usually their employer, who is responsible for their visa and legal status.

Q2. Which of the given statements with respect to Nehru-Liaquat Pact is/are correct?
  1. It was a bilateral agreement signed between India and Pakistan in 1950.
  2. Its aim was to resolve the issue of protection of the minorities.
  3. It did not recognise forced conversions in the respective countries.
  4. It is also known as the Lahore Declaration.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 4 only
  3. 2 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Nehru-Liaquat Pact (Delhi Pact) was a bilateral agreement signed between India and Pakistan in 1950 to resolve the issue of protection of the minorities in the backdrop of communal violence during the partition.
  • It did not recognise forced conversions in the respective countries.
Q3. The unique alder-based Jhum cultivation is practised in which of these states?
  1. Meghalaya
  2. Nagaland
  3. Manipur
  4. Arunachal Pradesh
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Angami tribes from village Khonoma of Kohima district in Nagaland devised Alder based Jhum cultivation which is sustainable and eco-friendly.
  • Alder-based Jhum cultivation is unique to Nagaland.
Q4. Which of the given pairs is/are correctly matched?

              Missile                              Type

  1. Akash                           Surface to surface
  2. Barak-8                           Surface to Air
  3. ASTRA                                 Air to Air

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
  • Barak 8 is an Indo-Israeli surface-to-air missile (SAM).
  • ASTRA is an Indian all weather beyond-visual-range active radar homing air-to-air missile, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.
Q5. Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because 
mycorrhiza enables the plants to (UPSC 2013)
  1. resist drought and increase absorptive area
  2. tolerate extremes of PH
  3. Resist disease infestation

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungus in the host plant’s root system. It is a symbiotic relationship between the two.
  • Mycorrhizal fungi help the host plant to resist drought and increase its absorptive area, tolerate extreme levels of PH in the soil, protects it from root diseases.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. India’s engagement with the Taliban may or may not achieve much, but non-engagement will definitely hurt Indian interests. Substantiate. (10 Marks, 150 Words) [GS-2, International Relations]
  2. Indian cities are not able to withstand extreme rainfall resulting in loss of lives and disruption in economic activities. Discuss the possible causes and suggest an innovative plan to overcome the negative consequences. (10 Marks, 150 Words)[GS-3, Disaster Management]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 22nd July 2021:- Download PDF Here

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