25 June 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 25th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. In contact with stakeholders on Afghanistan, says India
2. Ethiopian army confirms Tigray airstrike
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. PM backs delimitation exercise, grassroots democracy in J&K
C. GS 3 Related
SECURITY
1. NCB arrests key accused in Pak.-based drug ring
ECONOMY
1. NHAI seeks Odisha govt.’s nod for coastal highway
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Staging a comeback, re-energising India’s Africa policy
ECONOMY
1. The rural economy can jump-start a revival
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. ‘Pandemic hikes narcotics sale over web’
2. Russia, U.K. spar over Black Sea incident
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

2. Ethiopian army confirms Tigray airstrike

Context:

Ethiopia’s military confirmed it was responsible for a deadly airstrike on a busy marketplace in the Tigray region.

Read on the conflict between the Ethiopian government and Tigray rebels, covered in 17th November 2020 Comprehensive News Analysis.
Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. PM backs delimitation exercise, grassroots democracy in J&K

Context:

In the first outreach meeting between the Union government and mainstream political leaders of Jammu and Kashmir, the Prime Minister met 14 leaders of eight mainstream political parties in the Union Territory.

Details:

  • At the meeting, the PM reiterated the government’s commitment to fostering grassroots democracy in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • In the backdrop of the establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj System with the election and constitution of Block and District Development Councils, there were detailed deliberations on how to give further fillip to the democratic process in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Cooperation was sought in completing the delimitation exercise for Assembly seats in the Union Territory.
    • Elections will be held after the delimitation process, and an Assembly constituted once again.
    • Delimitation will be conducted in the rest of the country in 2026.

Issues raised by the parties:

  • Every party spoke about the restoration of statehood in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The contentious issue of special status to Jammu and Kashmir, which was removed by the abrogation of Article 370, was also raised.
    • Most of them did not demand its restoration since the matter is in the Supreme Court.
  • Suggestions were made to include a special provision to secure jobs and land for locals under Article 371.

Category: ECONOMY

1. NHAI seeks Odisha govt.’s nod for coastal highway

Context:

The National Highway Authority of India has sought the Odisha government’s consent for an ambitious coastal highway project.

Details:

  • The 348 Km long coastal highway project was first proposed six years ago under Bharatmala Pariyojana.
  • It will connect Odisha’s Tangi with West Bengal’s Digha.
  • It is a greenfield project.

Issue:

  • The major hurdle has been environmental concerns.
  • The road was initially planned through ecologically sensitive Chilika, Balukhanda Konark Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhitarkanika Sanctuary Area and some of the important Olive Ridley turtle nesting sites.
  • After environmentalists raised an alarm, Chilika was struck off from the plan.
  • Some portions of the highway project will require approval under coastal regulation zone guidelines.

Read more on Bharatmala Pariyojana – Features, Challenges, Project Costs & Benefits

Category: ECONOMY

1. The rural economy can jump-start a revival

Context:

  • The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic impact

Details:

  • As against the official claims of an ongoing economic recovery, the article argues that the economic recovery post the second wave of the pandemic would be difficult based on the following arguments.

Flaws in official estimates:

  • Though the GDP growth has been better than estimated in the previous fiscal year, this is attributable to the methodological issue of underestimation of the economic distress in the unorganised sector observed in the official estimates like Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth from the National Statistical Office (NSO).
  • The article also warns that given that the economy has already suffered last year, any economic recovery will largely be driven by the base effect rather than a real recovery.
    • The base effect refers to the effect that the choice of a basis of comparison or reference can have on the result of the comparison between data points.

Continued trend of economic slowdown:

  • What makes economic recovery challenging is that the current decline follows three years of a sharp decline in GDP even before the novel coronavirus pandemic hit India. This could be indicative of the structural issues that could be plaguing the Indian economy.
  • The pandemic has only worsened an already fragile economic situation. The sharp decline in GDP was partly a result of the trend of a slowdown in economic activity since 2016-17.

Impact on incomes:

  • The economic impact of the pandemic has resulted in lost jobs and incomes for the households which have depressed demand in the economy which is so very important for economic recovery.

Insufficient response from the government:

  • The less than adequate response from the Government in terms of increased fiscal support will undermine economic recovery.
  • The article argues that the government interventions to help small and medium enterprises as well as the large unorganised sector which bore the brunt of the restrictions in economic activity are insufficient.

Impact on rural areas:

  • As compared to the first wave of the pandemic, when the agriculture sector remained a key driver of the Indian economy, in the second wave the rural areas have been severely impacted both in terms of health and livelihoods.
  • The loss of earning members to the pandemic and the expenditure of large sums on private healthcare could have pushed a large proportion of the rural population into indebtedness from non-institutional sources. Thus the rural areas are under considerable economic distress.

Inflation threat:

  • The rising inflation threatens to reduce the purchasing power of the rural economy already struggling with declining incomes and job losses.
  • The increased input costs of raw materials into agricultural activities could adversely impact the profit margins in the sector which will, in turn, have an impact on the incomes of the rural population.

Way forward:

  • The rural economy including the agricultural economy continues to remain crucial for any strategy of economic revival.
  • The government will have to focus on the following measures.
    • Speed up vaccination coverage in rural areas.
    • Provide greater fiscal support to rural areas in terms of direct income support to revive demand in the economy and also through subsidies.

F. Prelims Facts

Nothing here for today!!!

G. Tidbits

1. ‘Pandemic hikes narcotics sale over web’

What’s in News?

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime’s World Drug Report 2021, the lockdown restrictions during COVID-19 may have accelerated drug trafficking using the Internet.

  • The trend of using the dark web is on the rise, with a fourfold increase in annual sales from the beginning of the 2010s to more recent years.
  • In Asia, China and India are the most frequently mentioned countries linked to the shipment of drugs sold on the 19 major darknet markets analysed over 2011-2020.
  • Major drug markets on the dark web are worth some $315 million annually.
  • Access to drugs has also become simpler than ever with online sales.
  • Contactless transactions, such as through the mail, are also on the rise, a trend possibly accelerated by the pandemic.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

  • It was formed in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining two UN offices.
  • It was renamed to its current name in 2002.
  • UNODC’s mission is to contribute to global peace and security, human rights and development by making the world safer from drugs, crime, corruption and terrorism. 
  • UNODC also works to improve crime prevention and to assist with criminal justice reform in a number of countries. 

Read more on UNODC – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

2. Russia, U.K. spar over Black Sea incident

What’s in News?

Russia has accused Britain of spreading lies over a warship confrontation in the Black Sea.

Details:

  • Russia has warned London that it would respond resolutely to any further provocative actions by the British Navy off the coast of Russia-annexed Crimea.
  • Russia believes that a Britain warship breached its territorial waters (which Britain and most of the world say belong to Ukraine).
  • Britain in its defence said that it does not recognise the Russian annexation of Crimea.
  • Also, under international law of the sea, innocent passage permits a vessel to pass through another state’s territorial waters so long as this does not affect its security.

Note:

  • Russia uses the Black Sea to project its power in the Mediterranean.
  • The Black Sea has for centuries been a flashpoint between Russia and its competitors such as Turkey, France, U.S. and the U.K.
  • Russia seized and annexed the Crimea peninsula from Ukraine in 2014 and considers areas around its coast to be Russian waters.
  • Western countries deem Crimea to be part of Ukraine and reject Russia’s claim to the seas around it.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are correct about Mediterranean Climate?
  1. They are confined to the western portion of continental masses, between 30 to 45 degree north and south of the equator.
  2. The basic cause of this type of climate is the shifting of winds belts.
  3. The Mediterranean lands receive most of their precipitation in Summer.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Mediterranean climatic conditions are seen in and around the Mediterranean Sea and the western portion of continental masses, roughly between 30 to 45 degree north and south of the equator.
  • The climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, where this climate type is most common.
  • The basic cause of this type of climate is the shifting of winds belts.
  • Mediterranean Climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters.
Q2. Which of the following countries border Black Sea?
  1. Bulgaria
  2. Ukraine
  3. Russia
  4. Kazakhstan
  5. Turkmenistan

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, Georgia and Turkey border the Black Sea.

Q3. Consider the following pairs:

Region in News                                                Country

  • Tokara Islands                                           Philippines
  • Tigray region                                                 Nigeria
  • Dzukou Valley                                           Afghanistan

Which of the above pairs is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

Region in News                                Country

Tokara Islands                                         Japan

Tigray region                                         Ethiopia

Dzukou Valley                      India (located at the border of Manipur and Nagaland)

Q4. Consider the following statements about Kabir:
  1. Kabir was the most famous disciple of Ramananda.
  2. He was brought up by a Muslim couple who were weavers by profession.
  3. He criticized all forms of worship of idols.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Kabir Das was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism’s Bhakti movement.
  • Kabir was the most famous disciple of Ramananda.
  • He was brought up by a Muslim couple who were weavers by profession.
  • He criticized all forms of worship of idols.
  • He aided the common people to shed age old superstitions and attain salvation through Bhakti or pure devotion.
Q5. With reference to the ‘Gram Nyayalaya Act’, which of the following statements is/are 
correct?
  1. As per the Act, Gram Nyayalayas can hear only civil cases and not criminal cases.
  2. The Act allows local social activists as mediators/reconciliators.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 is an Act of Parliament of India enacted for establishment of Gram Nyayalayas or village courts for speedy and easy access to justice system in the rural areas of India.
  • Gram Nyayalayas can hear both criminal and civil cases.
  • The Gram Nyayalayas are presided over by a Nyayadhikari, who will have the same power, enjoy same salary and benefits of a Judicial Magistrate of First Class. Such Nyayadhikari are to be appointed by the State Government in consultation with the respective High Court.
  • Gram Nyayalayas allow for conciliation of the dispute and settlement of the same in the first instance.
  • The Act allows local social activists as mediators/reconciliators.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. India’s Africa policy needs to be re-energized. Discuss. (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-2, International Relations].
  2. Examine the contribution of the rural sector to the Indian economy. In the midst of the pandemic, how can the rural economy jump-start an overall revival in the economy? (250 words; 15 marks) [GS-3, Economy].

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 25th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*