26 Jun 2022: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Quote for the day Set 5 05

CNA 26 June 2022:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
C. GS 3 Related
ECONOMY
1. Sterlite plant sale could impact investor confidence in Tamil Nadu
2. Salt sector crisis pinches livelihood of lakhs
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY
1. Has the anti-defection law failed in India?
F. Prelims Facts
1. Jyotirgamaya Festival
G. Tidbits
1. Hasina opens Padma multipurpose bridge
2. Udaipur’s ‘bird village’ to be declared wetland
3. Kerala to have its own regional red list of birds
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
FIP Magazine

2. Salt sector crisis pinches livelihood of lakhs

Syllabus: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

Prelims: Salt industry in India 

Mains: Challenges associated with the salt industry in India 

Context

This article talks about the challenges faced by the salt industry.

Salt industry in India 

  • India is ranked as the third-largest producer of Salt in the World after China and USA.
  • At the time of Indian independence, India was importing salt from the UK and the salt industry in India has achieved tremendous growth in terms of becoming self-sufficient and also exporting its surplus.
  • The major sources of salt in the country include:
    • Sea brine
    • Lake brine
    • Sub-soil brine 
    • Rock salt deposits
  • Nearly 99.5% of salt is produced either from the seawater or from the subsoil water and the entire process is done by seeding, cultivation and harvest.
  • The major salt-producing states are Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and West Bengal.
    • Gujarat produces nearly 28.5 million tonnes of salt a year, which is about 80% of India’s total production.
  • About five lakh people currently work in the salt industry
  • It is estimated that 87.6% of the total number of salt producers are small-scale producers.
  • Salt is listed under the Union List of the seventh schedule of the Constitution of India.

Challenges associated with the salt industry in India

  • The salt industry is currently facing huge challenges in meeting the demand and in addressing the crisis faced by salt farmers.
    • At present, India produces 36 million tonnes of salt and its demand, including for export, is 31.5 million tonnes. However, the demand is increasing at the rate of 8% but the production is increasing at just 3%.
    • This is expected to create a demand and supply gap in the coming years.
  • Currently, farmers earn about ₹250 to ₹300 for a tonne of salt produced and the problem is that the prices keep fluctuating.
  • Further, the workers are affected because of the lack of an adequate system for wages and social security benefits.
  • Even after 75 years of Independence, the laws governing the salt industry are the ones that were framed by the British.
    • About 120 years ago, Britishers extracted salt from Mandi in Himachal Pradesh through mining and hence the British put salt production as mining. 
    • But currently, only about 0.5% of salt is produced through mining.
    • Experts say that since it is listed as a mining industry, all laws governing the industries are applicable to salt production even as the production is done through simple solar evaporation.
Nut Graf

The challenges and concerns associated with the salt industry have to be immediately addressed as the industry has played a crucial role in changing the course of the history of India and continues to be the source of livelihood to lakhs of people in the country.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Jyotirgamaya Festival

SyllabusGS-1, Indian Heritage and Culture; Salient aspects of Art Forms

Prelims: World Music Day, Jyotirgamaya Festival and Sangeet Natak Akademi 

Context

On the occasion of World Music Day, Jyotirgamaya Festival was organised.

Jyotirgamaya Festival

  • Jyotirgamaya Festival is organised by the Sangeet Natak Akademi 
  • Jyotirgamaya is a unique festival organised to showcase the talent of rare musical instruments from across the country, including street performers, train entertainers, performers attached to temples, etc.
  • The festival aims to spread awareness about the need to protect the craft of making and the skill of playing rare musical instruments, and to provide a platform to ‘unheard’ artists.

Sangeet Natak Akademi 

  • Sangeet Natak Akademi was established in 1953 with the objective of preserving and promoting the vast intangible heritage of India’s diverse culture expressed in forms of music, dance and drama.
  • It is the apex body in the field of performing arts in the country
  • It is an autonomous body working under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture.
  • The Chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years.
  • The registered office of the Akademi is at Rabindra Bhavan.
  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards are the highest national recognition conferred to artists.

G. Tidbits

1. Hasina opens Padma multipurpose bridge

  • The Government of India congratulated Bangladesh on the completion of the Padma Multipurpose Bridge which is regarded as the biggest infrastructure project in Bangladesh.
  • Along with enhancing the internal connectivity in Bangladesh, the Padma bridge is expected to improve trade and logistics between India and Bangladesh. 
  • The bridge is expected to play a crucial role in improving bilateral India-Bangladesh and subregional links.
  • The Padma Bridge will facilitate faster transportation of goods and commodities between Bangladesh and India and other countries like Nepal and Bhutan.

2. Udaipur’s ‘bird village’ to be declared wetland

  • Menar in Udaipur district which is regarded as the “bird village” is set to be notified as Rajasthan’s new wetland. The move is expected to help the region get the Ramsar site status under the Ramsar convention, 1971.
  • Currently, Rajasthan has two wetlands recognised as Ramsar sites namely Keoladeo Ghana in Bharatpur district and Sambhar Salt Lake in Jaipur.
  • The two lakes in the village namely the Brahma and Dhandh host a large number of migratory birds during the winter season which include the greater flamingo, white-tailed lapwing, pelican, marsh harrier, bar headed goose, common teal, greenshank, pintail, wagtail, green sandpiper and red-wattled lapwing.

3. Kerala to have its own regional red list of birds

  • Kerala will have its own red list of birds as the Kerala Bird Monitoring Collective led by Kerala Agricultural University and the Bird Count India will conduct the regional red list assessment.
  • It makes Kerala the first State to have a region-specific red list of birds
  • The IUCN guidelines for preparing the red list have five main criteria namely the population size reduction measured over 10 years or three generations, geographic range on the basis of extent of occurrence or area of occupancy, small population size and decline, very small or restricted population, and quantitative analysis indicating the probability of extinction in the wild
  • According to the global IUCN red list, Kerala has 35 threatened species of birds which includes the Red-headed vulture and White-rumped vulture which are critically endangered and Steppe Eagle, Banasura Chilappan and Nilgiri Chilappan which are endangered and 11 species are vulnerable.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct with respect to salt production 
in India? (Difficulty level- Difficult)
  1. India is the world’s largest producer of salt.
  2. Among the states, Rajasthan accounts for the largest salt production in India.
  3. Salt produced from mining accounts for around 30% of the total salt production in India.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • India is the world’s third largest salt producer.
  • Among the Indian states, Gujarat accounts for the largest salt production. Gujarat accounts for 80% of the total salt production in India.
  • Only around 0.5% of salt production in India is produced by mining. 99.5% salt is produced either from the seawater or from the subsoil water.
Q2. Which of the following statement/s is/are correct? (Difficulty level- Medium)
  1. The levy and collection of GST compensation cess has been extended till March 2026.
  2. The revenue collected from this cess will be used to compensate the states for any shortfall in their revenue collections under the GST system until March 2026.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • The centre has extended the time for levy of GST compensation cess by four years till March 31,2026 based on the Goods and Services Tax (Period of levy and collection of cess) rules 2022 notified by the Finance Ministry.
  • The levy of cess was to end on June 30 but has been extended till 2026 to repay the loans taken in the last two years to make up for the shortfall in their revenue collection. The regime of paying compensation to states would end by June 2022.
Q3. Consider the following statements about solid state batteries and liquid electrolyte 
batteries? (Difficulty level- Difficult)
  1. The solid-state batteries are safer than batteries using liquid electrolytes.
  2. A solid-state battery has higher energy density than a Li-ion battery that uses liquid electrolyte solution.
  3. The solid- state batteries can charge faster than liquid electrolyte batteries.

Options:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • A lithium-ion battery is composed of cathode, anode, separator and electrolyte. A lithium-ion battery applied at smartphones, power tools and EVs uses liquid electrolyte solution. On the other hand, a solid-state battery uses solid electrolyte, not liquid.
  • The solid-state batteries are safer than batteries using liquid electrolytes. Li-ion battery has a risk of battery damage such as swelling caused by temperature change or leakage caused by external force since it uses liquid electrolyte solution. The liquid electrolytes are flammable and degrade at high temperatures leading to poor battery life and in extreme cases lead to battery fires. A solid-state battery with solid battery shows improved stability with a solid structure and increased safety. It doesn’t have a risk of explosion or fire.
  • A solid-state battery has higher energy density than a Li-ion battery that uses liquid electrolyte solution. Solid-state batteries can deliver 2.5 times more energy density as compared to lithium-ion batteries. This tremendous increase in solid-state batteries’ energy density means that they will be far smaller and lighter.
  • Solid-state batteries are capable of holding much more energy per unit of mass than today’s lithium-ion batteries, which means an EV could go for much longer before needing to be recharged
  • Solid-state batteries can work at very high rates of power. Research suggests that they may be able to recharge 4-6 times faster than current technologies safely.
Q4. Consider the following birds.
  1. Banasura Chilappan
  2. Ceylon Frogmouth
  3. Jerdon’s nightjar
  4. Great Hornbill

How many of the above birds are found in the state of Kerala? (Difficulty level- Difficult)

  1. One only
  2. Two only
  3. Three only
  4. All the above four
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The Banasura Chilappan bird is found in shola habitat in a small section of the Western Ghats in southwestern Karnataka and northern Kerala.
  • The frogmouth is distributed across the Western Ghats’ wet evergreens from the Karnataka border to the Neyyar sanctuary at the tip of Kerala. The Thattekkad sanctuary has a rich population of the frogmouth. The frogmouths are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects.
  • Jerdon’s nightjar is a medium-sized nightjar species native to southern India and Sri Lanka. Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground.
  • The great hornbill is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It occurs in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is predominantly frugivorous, but also preys on small mammals, reptiles and birds. The Government of Kerala declared it as the official Kerala state bird.
Q5. The Chairmen of public sector banks are selected by the (Difficulty level- Easy)
  1. Banks Board Bureau
  2. Reserve Bank of India
  3. Union Ministry of Finance
  4. Management of concerned bank
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • Bank Board Bureau is responsible for the selection of chairmen of public sector banks.
  • ‘The Committee to Review Governance of Boards of Banks in India, headed by Chairman – P. J. Nayak had recommended the constitution of the Banks Board Bureau.
  • The government, in 2016, approved the constitution of the BBB as a body to make recommendations for the appointment of whole-time directors as well as non-executive chairpersons of Public Sector Banks (PSBs) and state-owned financial institutions.
  • It also engages with the board of directors of all the public sector banks to formulate appropriate strategies for their growth and development. It is tasked with improving corporate governance at public sector banks, building capacities, etc.

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 26 June 2022:- Download PDF Here

1 Comment

  1. ohk thanks for this comprehensive newspaper analysis

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