28 May 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 28 May 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. U.S.-China engagement era has come to an end: top U.S. official
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. SC had cautioned govt. on privacy
2. Yet to receive draft regulation: govt.
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Nine-pin bowling aimed at free speech, privacy
2. Incorporating limits
HEALTH
1. Addressing vaccine hesitancy
F. Prelims Facts
G. Tidbits
1. IBF to cover streaming platforms
2. Uncertainty, risks cloud outlook: RBI
3. Gaza attack may constitute ‘war crimes’
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. SC had cautioned govt. on privacy

Context:

Recently, WhatsApp has approached the Delhi High Court challenging the Central government’s new Information Technology Rules, 2021.

Read more: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis. May 27th, 2021 CNA.

Background:

  • In September 2019, hearing a petition filed by Facebook, the top court showed deep concern at the utilisation of social media for committing crimes.
  • It said the medium had become a source for pornography, criminals to run weapons, drugs and contraband. The court had even felt that some messages on social media may even threaten national sovereignty.
  • It was in this context the court had called for a properly framed regime to allow the government to get information about the first originators of messages from significant social media intermediaries with end-to-end encryption technology.
    • However, the court had exercised restraint, too. It warned that de-encryption, if easily available, could defeat the fundamental right to privacy.
  • The court had clarified that the government should ensure that the privacy of the individual is not invaded. The order had also underlined that traceability should be restricted to specific circumstances.
  • In the Puttuswamy Case, the SC had said “The essential role of the test of proportionality is to enable the court to determine whether a legislative measure is disproportionate in its interference with the fundamental right… In determining this, the court will have regard to whether a less intrusive measure could have been adopted consistent with the object of the law and whether the impact of the encroachment on a fundamental right is disproportionate to the benefit which is likely to ensue.

Issue:

  • The new rules compel the social media platforms to compulsorily enable “the identification of the first originator of the information” in India upon government or court order.
  • But WhatsApp finds traceability under the new rules “disproportionate”. The privacy of each one of its users would be compromised as there was no way to predict which message would be subject to a tracing order from the government.
  • In its petition before the Delhi High Court, it said that it would have to build an ability to identify the first originator of every message, to be served up to the government forever. This means even legal users and their messages would be under watch. It would have a chilling effect on free speech.

2. Yet to receive draft regulation: govt.

Context:

Policies introduced by Lakshadweep Administrator Praful Khoda Patel in Lakshadweep have sparked protests in the union territory.

  • Patel was made administrator of Lakshadweep in December 2020.
  • He took over as the Administrator after the passing of Dineshwar Sharma, former Director, Intelligence Bureau.

Issues:

  • The Draft Lakshadweep Development Authority Regulation 2021 (LDAR) gives the administrator powers to remove or relocate islanders from their property, for town planning or any developmental activity.
  • The draft regulation proposes seven years’ imprisonment for the consumption or the sale of beef.
  • Under the Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act (PASA), introduced in January 2021, a person can be detained without any public disclosure for a period of up to one year.
  • As per a draft panchayat notification, a member with more than two children is disqualified from being a member.

Details:

  • The draft Lakshadweep Development Authority Regulation (LDAR), 2021 will require ratification from the Union Home Ministry and the Cabinet before it is implemented.
  • The Union Home Ministry is the administrating authority for the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.
  • Any proposed change to the laws in Lakshadweep is to be brought through regulations, instead of a Bill as is the case in other UTs with a legislature such as Delhi and Puducherry.
  • These regulations are then put up for public consultation and once the response is received, it is sent to the Union Home Ministry.
  • The Ministry will examine the regulations, and only after it clears them will the draft be sent to the Union Cabinet for approval.

2. Uncertainty, risks cloud outlook: RBI

What’s in News?

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in its annual report for 2020-21 has said that the global, as well as the domestic outlook, has turned grim – overcast with extreme uncertainty and downside risks in the backdrop of the pandemic, mutant strains of the virus, the slow pace of vaccination.

  • It asserted that a durable revival in private consumption and investment demand together would be critical for a self-sustaining GDP growth trajectory post-COVID-19 as they account for around 85% of GDP.
  • It asked the banks to closely monitor bad loans and prepare for higher provisioning.
    • The gross non-performing assets ratio of scheduled commercial banks has declined owing to prudent provisioning – resulting in an improvement in the provision coverage ratio.

3. Gaza attack may constitute ‘war crimes’

What’s in News?

The UN rights chief Michelle Bachelet has said that Israel’s recent deadly airstrikes on Gaza may constitute a war crime.

  • At a special session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, the chief expressed deep concern about the high level of civilian fatalities and injuries from the attacks on Gaza.
  • It was stressed that the rockets fired by Hamas were indiscriminate and fail to distinguish between military and civilian objects, and were a clear violation of international humanitarian law.

Note:

Member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation have called upon the UN Human Rights Council to set up a permanent commission to report on human rights violations in Israel, Gaza and the West Bank.

International Criminal Court
  • The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an independent judicial body with jurisdiction over persons charged with genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.
  • The Court was established by the Rome Statute.
  • This treaty was negotiated within the UN; however, it created an independent judicial body – ICC, distinct from the UN.
  • Although the Court’s expenses are funded primarily by States Parties, it also receives voluntary contributions from governments, international organisations, individuals, corporations and other entities.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Colour-coded notices such as red, blue, green, yellow, etc. are issued by which 
international organisation?
  1. World Trade Organisation
  2. World Bank
  3. Interpol
  4. UNEP
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

INTERPOL Notices are international requests for cooperation or alerts allowing police in member countries to share critical crime-related information.

  • Red Notice: To seek the location/arrest of a person wanted by a judicial jurisdiction or an international tribunal with a view to his/her extradition.
  • Blue Notice: To locate, identify or obtain information on a person of interest in a criminal investigation.
  • Green Notice: To warn about a person’s criminal activities if that person is considered to be a possible threat to public safety.
  • Yellow Notice: To locate a missing person or to identify a person unable to identify himself/herself.
  • Black Notice: To seek information on unidentified bodies.
  • Orange Notice: To warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing an imminent threat and danger to persons or property.
  • Purple Notice: To provide information on modus operandi, procedures, objects, devices, or hiding places used by criminals.
Q2. What does CARICOM, often seen in news, refer to?
  1. Private communication satellite developed by Indian students
  2. Regional organisation representing the Caribbean nations
  3. UN financing mechanism for disaster risk reduction
  4. Intelligence gathering and sharing arrangement of NATO countries
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) is a group of countries in the Caribbean.
  • It is an economic and political community that works together to shape policies for the region and encourages economic growth and trade.
  • The organisation was established in 1973.
  • The secretariat headquarters is in Georgetown, Guyana. CARICOM is an official United Nations Observer.
Q3. Which of the following statements about Rabindranath Tagore is/are correct?
  1. Rabindranath Tagore was ideologically opposed to the Non-cooperation movement.
  2. He wrote an essay – ‘The Cult of the Charkha’ – which offered a critique on the Gandhian ethic of “charkha-spinning” as an activity that could rejuvenate the Indian masses during the Indian independence movement.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Rabindranath Tagore was ideologically opposed to the Non-cooperation movement.
  • He opined that it presented a more isolationist view of India. Rabindranath Tagore argued that violent nationalism (burning foreign clothes) would destroy civilization itself. Rather he supported the creative programmes.
  • He wrote an essay – ‘The Cult of the Charkha’ – which offered a critique on the Gandhian ethic of “charkha-spinning” as an activity that could rejuvenate the Indian masses during the Indian independence movement.
Q4. The State of the Global Climate Report is brought out by -
  1. World Meteorological Organization
  2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  3. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  4. United Nations Environment Programme
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

Q5. In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in 
others because: (UPSC 2019)
  1. poverty rates vary from State to State
  2. price levels vary from State to State
  3. Gross State Product varies from State to State
  4. quality of public distribution varies from State to State
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in others because price levels vary from State to State.
  • Poverty lines are measured based on the minimum consumption cost incurred by the people in a particular region as per the Tendulkar Committee recommendations.
  • The minimum consumption cost differs from state to state as the price levels vary for each of the states.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. The Information Technology Rules, 2021 go against landmark judicial precedents that uphold key rights. Evaluate. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS 2 Polity and Governance)
  2. Speech is free, but it is a freedom that comes with responsibility. In the light of this statement, examine the proposed hate speech provisions under the IPC. (250 words; 15 marks) (GS 2 Polity and Governance)

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 28 May 2021:- Download PDF Here

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