02 Oct 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

Oct 2nd, 2021, CNA:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
HEALTH
1. BP, cholesterol control key for Type 1 diabetics
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. CJI for forming special panels to probe ‘atrocities’ by police
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Shringla begins four-day visit to Sri Lanka today
2. India, U.S. to set up working group on defence industrial security
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
HISTORY
1. Reading Gandhi as a lesson of political maturity
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. No clean sweep
SECURITY
1. Crime and the pandemic
F. Prelims Facts
1. CP smog tower purifying 80% air: Rai
G. Tidbits
1. Drones used to spread seed balls for reforestation
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. CJI for forming special panels to probe ‘atrocities’ by police

Context:

Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana has expressed his strong reservations about the conduct of police officers and bureaucracy in the country.

Details:

  • Chief Justice of India has said that he is in favour of forming standing committees headed by the Chief Justices of the High Courts to investigate complaints received from the common man of atrocities committed by the bureaucracy, especially police officers.
  • Some police officers are in the spotlight for committing serious crimes.
    • Recently, police officers in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, have been accused of causing the death of a businessman during a raid in a hotel.
    • In Tamil Nadu, the CBI chargesheeted nine policemen for the custodial deaths of father-son duo P. Jayaraj and J. Benicks.
    • There have been instances of district administration officers caught on video manhandling citizens during the lockdown.
  • The Supreme Court had raised the issue of nexus between politicians in power and police officers.
  • Also, earlier, the Supreme Court had orally referred to a disturbing trend, where police officials, who had sided with the party in power, are later targeted when another political dispensation comes to power.

Also read: Police reforms

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. Shringla begins four-day visit to Sri Lanka today

Context:

Foreign Secretary Harsh Shringla is in Colombo for a four-day visit to Sri Lanka.

Details:

  • The visit of the Foreign Secretary will provide an opportunity to:
    • review the bilateral ties
    • review the progress of ongoing bilateral projects
    • build on the ongoing cooperation to tackle COVID-related disruptions.
  • The visit is being seen as an attempt to reset ties that have been under a strain over:
    • The Sri Lankan decision to cancel an MoU with India and Japan for Colombo’s East Container Terminal.

Read more on this issue covered in the 3rd February 2021 Comprehensive News Analysis.

  • Slow progress in a number of other proposals, including the Trincomalee oil farms, the Sampur power project (which is being converted to a solar project), and the development of the northern part of the island nation.
  • In particular, India has been concerned by the perception that while Indian projects have taken inordinately long to be cleared, projects by China have been cleared even during the pandemic.
    • Example: The Sri Lankan government’s Parliament vote to facilitate the $1.4 billion China-backed Colombo Port City development.
    • The ruling Rajapaksa administration passed a Bill, titled ‘Colombo Port City Economic Commission’, in Parliament, outlining proposed laws for the $1.4 billion Port City being built on reclaimed land at Colombo’s seafront.
    • It is touted by the government as an investment hub for foreign capital.

Agenda:

  • Assessing progress on a number of infrastructure and energy projects, and Sri Lanka’s need for economic assistance will be at the top of the agenda.
  • He is expected to raise concerns about the reconciliation process and promises of devolution of power to northern Sri Lanka, which have remained unfulfilled more than a decade after the end of the war on the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 2009.

2. India, U.S. to set up working group on defence industrial security

Context:

India and the United States have agreed in principle to establish a Indo-U.S. Industrial Security Joint Working Group.

Details:

  • This was agreed during the Industrial Security Agreement summit held between the two sides.
  • This group will meet periodically to align the policies and procedures expeditiously that will allow the defence industries to collaborate on cutting edge defence technologies.
  • Under ISA, the US side is expected to help in providing the necessary framework which will be useful in pursuing the co-development and co-production in the defence production centre.
  • Both countries recently decided to work on co-developing air-launched unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This project is being done under the Defense Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI).

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. No clean sweep

Context:

The Prime Minister of India has announced the second phase of Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT), with a fresh promise to make India’s cities clean.

This topic has been covered in Oct 1st, 2021 CNA.

Issues:

  • The goal of scientific waste management and full sanitation that Mahatma Gandhi emphasised even a century ago remains largely aspirational today.
  • It is evident from the recent regret of the Principal Economic Adviser on dirty, dysfunctional cities.
  • According to him, urban India is unable to match cities in Vietnam that has a comparable per capita income.
  • The current model of issuing mega contracts to big corporations has left segregation of waste at source a non-starter.
  • On sanitation, the impressive claim of exceeding the targets for household, community and public toilets thus far conceals the reality that without water connections, many of them are unusable.
  • He spoke about the lack of urban management capacities in India in spite of the Swachh Bharat programme enjoying tremendous support.

Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) 2.0:

  • SBM-U 2.0, with a ₹1.41-lakh crore outlay, aims to focus on garbage-free cities.
  • It ventures into urban grey and black water management in places not covered by AMRUT.
  • In its first phase, the Mission had an outstanding balance of ₹3,532 crore, since the total allocation was ₹14,622 crore while cumulative releases came to ₹11,090 crore.

Way Forward:

  • India aims to address two main challenges through SBM 2.0.
    • Being able to process 1.4 lakh tonnes of solid waste generated per day. (At present, only about 1 lakh tonnes is processed.)
    • To transition to a circular economy that treats solid and liquid waste as a resource.
  • Capability and governance play a major role in this regard.
  • Raising community involvement in resource recovery calls for a partnership that gives a tangible incentive to households.
  • Decentralised community-level operations could be considered for the segregation of waste.
  • In the absence of a scaling up of operations, which can provide large-scale employment and the creation of matching facilities for material recovery, SBM-U 2.0 cannot keep pace with the tide of waste in a growing economy.
  • State and municipal governments, which do the heavy lifting on waste and sanitation issues, should work to increase community ownership of the system.
  • It is a long road to Open Defecation Free plus (ODF+) status for urban India, since that requires no recorded case of open defecation and for all public toilets to be maintained and functioning.
  • The high ambition of achieving 100% tap water supply in about 4,700 urban local bodies and sewerage and septage in 500 AMRUT cities depends crucially on making at least good public rental housing accessible to millions of people.

Category: SECURITY

1. Crime and the pandemic

The article talks about the nature and patterns of crimes that were registered in 2020, in the backdrop of COVID-19 induced lockdown.

Context:

National Crime Records Bureau recently released the ‘Crime in India’ annual report.

NCRB:
  • The National Crime Records Bureau, abbreviated to NCRB, is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL).
  • NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.

Crime in India Report:

  • The first edition of ‘Crime in India’ pertains to the year 1953 and the latest edition of the report pertains to the year 2020.
  • This is the oldest and the most prestigious publication brought out by NCRB.
  • The data for the report is collected by State Crime Records Bureaux (SCRBx) from the District Crime Records Bureaux (DCRBx).
  • Data on megacities are also collected.

The annual report, ‘Crime in India-2020’, needs to be carefully analysed before obtaining insights or making State-wise comparisons.

Economic and Cyber-crimes:

  • The lockdown led to an overall fall in crime related to theft, burglary and dacoity.
  • While there was a reduction in the registered number of economic offences (by 12% since 2019), cybercrimes recorded an increase of 11.8%.
  • The increase in cybercrimes is cause for concern as this requires sharper law enforcement as seen even in highly developed societies.

Sedition:

  • While cases related to sedition declined from 93 in 2019 to 73 in 2020, Manipur and Assam led with 15 and 12 cases each.
  • Sedition has increasingly been used as a weapon to stifle dissent and this trend needs to be reversed urgently.

Violence against Women:

  • There are significant variances in case registration across States and Union Territories, especially serious crimes pertaining to rape and violence against women.
  • States/UTs such as Tamil Nadu with 1808.8, Kerala (1568.4) and Delhi (1309.6) recorded the highest crime rate (crimes per one lakh people) overall.
  • The numbers are a reflection of better reporting and police registration of cases in these States and the capital city.

Mismatch between the NCW and NCRB:

  • There was an 8.3% decline in registered cases of crimes against women in 2020 (of which the bulk of them, 30.2%, were of the category “Cruelty by husband or his relatives”).
  • This number has to be assessed along with the fact that the year saw prolonged lockdowns during the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic.
    • This period coincided with a high number of complaints of domestic violence.
    • The number of complaints received by the National Commission for Women registered a 10-year high as of June 2020.
  • The seeming mismatch between the NCW and NCRB data must be studied and can only be explained by a lack of registration of cases in some States where crime reporting remains sluggish either due to a fear of doing so or a lackadaisical approach by law enforcement.

Conclusion:

  • The lockdown had a bearing on the patterns of crimes that were registered in 2020.
  • The sudden lockdown announced in March 2020 immediately prompted grave concerns around escalating rates of domestic violence.
  • Restrictions on mobility and an inability for women to leave their homes and seek out safe havens led to anticipation that crimes against women would rise rather than fall.
  • Since there were restrictions on socialising in-person, and teaching shifted online, there was a corresponding rise in time spent by children online, making them vulnerable to online abuse and exploitation.

F. Prelims Facts

1. CP smog tower purifying 80% air: Rai

This topic has been covered in Aug 20th, 2021 CNA.

G. Tidbits

1. Drones used to spread seed balls for reforestation

What’s in News?

A Hyderabad-based technology start-up has come up with the innovative idea of an aerial seeding campaign as a solution for the reforestation challenge.

  • Marut Drones, which had earlier deployed drones successfully in agricultural operations and for delivery of vaccines, is using them for greening large swathes of denuded forest lands through its “Hara Bhara” initiative.
  • The campaign with the first seedcopter— a drone with seed balls was deployed in Telangana.
  • The seed balls contain a variety of seeds rolled within a ball of clay, together with organic manure and fertilizer. The balls, after being dispersed in a barren area, are expected to dissolve when it rains, and result in the germination of the seeds.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements about Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is/are correct?
  1. There are no known prevention methods for Type 1 diabetes, while a healthy lifestyle can prevent Type 2 diabetes.
  2. In Type 1 diabetes the body is producing insulin but not enough of it or it does not use it efficiently, whereas in Type 2 it is no longer able to produce insulin.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • There are no known prevention methods for Type 1 diabetes, while a healthy lifestyle can prevent Type 2 diabetes.
  • Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes. It is usually caused by an auto-immune reaction where the body’s defence system attacks the cells that produce insulin.
  • People with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin.
  • People with this form of diabetes need injections of insulin every day in order to control the levels of glucose in their blood.
  • Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes.
  • It is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, either or both of which may be present at the time diabetes is diagnosed.
Q2. With respect to Juvenile Justice Act (JJ Act), which of the following statements is/are 
incorrect?
  1. It mandates automatic termination of inquiries against a minor alleged to be in conflict with law in case of “petty offences” if the probe remains “inconclusive” even after four months, and a maximum extension of two months.
  2. “Petty Offences” include the offences for which the maximum punishment under the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force is imprisonment up to one year and “Serious Offences” include imprisonment between one to three years.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Juvenile Justice Act mandates automatic termination of inquiries against a minor alleged to be in conflict with law in case of “petty offences” if the probe remains “inconclusive” even after four months, and a maximum extension of two months.
  • Various types of offences committed by children in conflict with law have been defined under the JJ Act, 2015 as follows:
    • Petty offences: Petty offences include the offences for which the maximum punishment under the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force is imprisonment up to three years.
    • Serious Offences: Serious offences include the offences for which the punishment under the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force is imprisonment between three to seven years.
    • Heinous Offences: Heinous offences committed by children in conflict with law include the offences for which the minimum punishment under the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force is imprisonment for seven years or more.
Q3. Consider the following statements about National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC):
  1. It is India’s largest iron ore producer and exporter.
  2. It is a Navratna Company under the administrative control of the Ministry of Steel.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • National Mineral Development Corporation is India’s largest iron ore producer and exporter.
  • It is a Navratna Company under the administrative control of the Ministry of Steel.
  • In 1958, it was established as an owned and operated public company by the Indian government.
  • It also maintains the nation’s sole diamond mine at Patna in MP, with an annual output of one lakh carats.
Q4. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
  1. In India and the USA, both a citizen by birth as well as a naturalised citizen are eligible for the office of President.
  2. Citizenship is a matter dealt with by the Ministry of External Affairs in the Government of India.

Options:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • In India, both a citizen by birth as well as a naturalised citizen are eligible for the office of President.
  • In the USA, a naturalised citizen is not eligible for the office of President.
  • Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
  • Citizenship is a matter dealt with by the Ministry of Home Affairs in the Government of India.
Q5. Bio Carbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes is managed by the 
  1. Asian Development Bank
  2. International Monetary Fund
  3. United Nations Environment Programme
  4. World Bank
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank.
  • It collaborates with countries around the world to reduce emissions from the land sector through smarter land-use planning, policies, and practices.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. What makes Gandhi so relevant and meaningful for our world is that his political legacy and his philosophical significance continue to inspire millions of people around the globe to fight against inequality, injustice and historical wrongs. Comment. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-1, History]
  2. Transforming urban India calls for community-based moves towards a circular economy. Discuss. (250 words; 15 marks)[GS-2, Governance]

Read the previous CNA here.

Oct 2nd, 2021, CNA:- Download PDF Here

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