03 Feb 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

03 Feb 2021 CNA:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
1. Jal Jeevan Mission to help revive urban water bodies
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. ECT fiasco: Indian envoy meets Gotabaya, Mahinda
2. Why did the military stage a coup?
C. GS 3 Related
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. It’s goodbye to fiscal orthodoxy
2. A normal budget for abnormal times
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Setback in Myanmar
INTERNAL SECURITY
1. On the alert, always
F. Tidbits
1. Indian Ocean Region [IOR] Defence Ministers’ conclave
G. Prelims Facts
1. Alarm over damage to heritage site
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

A. GS 1 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

B. GS 2 Related

Category: POLITY AND GOVERNANCE

1. Jal Jeevan Mission to help revive urban water bodies

Context:

According to the Housing and Urban Affairs Ministry, the urban water supply mission announced in the Budget 2021-22 will include rejuvenation of waterbodies and 20% of supply from reused water.

Details:

  • Jal Jeevan Mission Urban [JJM(U)] seeks to bridge an estimated gap of 2.68 crore urban household tap connections.
  • It would also aim to bridge the gap of 2.64 crore sewer connections in the 500 cities under the existing Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
  • The mission would include rejuvenation of water bodies to boost the sustainable freshwater supply and creation of green spaces.
  • JJM(U) would promote circular economy of water through the development of city water balance plan for each city focusing on recycle/reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.
  • 20% of the water demand would be met with reused water.
  • The total expenditure on the mission would be ₹2.87 lakh crore over five years.

Read more on  Jal Jeevan Mission.
Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. ECT fiasco: Indian envoy meets Gotabaya, Mahinda

Context:

Sri Lanka backed out of an agreement with India and Japan to develop the East Container Terminal (ECT) at the Colombo Port.

Details:

  • The development has sparked alarm in India and Japan.
  • In 2019, Sri Lanka, Japan and India had signed an agreement to jointly develop the East Container Terminal at the Colombo Port.

This topic has been covered in the 29th May 2019 Comprehensive News Analysis.

  • This is the second instance of Sri Lanka reversing an agreement on a large infrastructure project involving Japan, after the government scrapped the $1.5 billion, Japan-funded Light Rail Transit system in 2020.

Note:

  • While the ECT, which is in its first stage and awaits upgrade, has a 450-metre-long quay wall and water depth of 18 metres, equipping it to accommodate large vessels, the West Container Terminal (WCT) exists merely as a proposal, with no infrastructure yet.

Strategic importance and concerns:

  • The ECT is adjacent to the Colombo International Container Terminal, which is a joint venture between China Merchants Port Holdings Company Limited and the Ports Authority, with the Chinese company holding an 85% stake.
  • Over 70% of the trans-shipment business at the strategically located ECT comes from India.
  • India and China’s competing geopolitical interests in the island are well known, but India-backed projects have often seen more vocal protests.

2. Why did the military stage a coup?

Context:

Recently, Myanmar’s Election Commission rejected allegations by the military that fraud played a significant role in determining the outcome of elections, in which Aung San Suu Kyi’s party won the majority of seats.

This topic has been covered in the 30th of January 2021 Comprehensive News Analysis.

Details:

  • Tensions were rising between the Army and the National League for Democracy (NLD) since the latter swept the polls.
  • Myanmar’s powerful military chief had raised doubts about the election results even before the polls were held.
  • NLD swept the polls by winning almost 80% of the vote.
  • The USDP did not accept the result. The military backed the USDP’s allegations of fraud, without offering any evidence.
  • However, Myanmar’s Election Commission rejected allegations by the military.
  • Hours before the new Parliament was to convene, the Generals moved into action. They detained State Counsellor Suu Kyi, President and other top leaders; declared a state of emergency for a year; and took power in their hands.
  • Now, Myanmar, which started a fragile transition to democracy 10 years ago after decades of military dictatorship, is back in the hands of the Generals.

Background:

  • The political climate in the junta-led Myanmar started changing around 2010.
  • In 2008, the military had written a new Constitution that made sure the Generals’ interests would be protected even if there is a transition.
  • Than Shwe, who had been ruling the country since 1992, shook up the power structure, promoted young soldiers who were loyal to him and conducted elections under the new Constitution.
  • The NLD, which had not recognised the Constitution, boycotted the 2010 election, which the USDP won.
  • In the next five years, the Army loosened its grip on the government and society. Political prisoners, including Ms. Suu Kyi, were released. Media censorship was eased.
  • Suu Kyi’s party also changed its earlier position and accepted the Constitution.
  • The NLD won the 2015 election, and formed the government, raising hopes that the country is on its way to full transition to democracy.

Issues:

  • The 2008 Constitution has enough clauses to prevent transition into a democracy. According to the Constitution, the President must have military experience and he himself, his spouse or children “shall not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country”.
    • Suu Kyi, whose two sons are British citizens, cannot become President.
  • The Constitution also mandates that the Defence and Interior Ministries be controlled by the military.
  • 25% of the total seats in Parliament (166 out of the 664-member house) are reserved for the military, giving it a veto over any move to change the Constitution.
    • Even when the Army allowed power to be transferred to an elected government, it made sure that it would continue to drive defence and internal security policies, and that the USDP, its political vehicle, has an edge over other parties in elections with the reserved seats in Parliament.

What Army wants?

  • The timing of the coup is self-explanatory. It unfolded hours before the new Parliament was scheduled to convene.
  • The 2020 elections were held after the Army launched a brutal crackdown on Rohingya in Rakhine State, which forced over 7,00,000 Rohingya Muslims to flee Myanmar.
  • The 2015 and 2020 election results showed the growing popularity of Ms. Suu Kyi and the unpopularity of the military.
  • Tensions have been rising between the NLD and the military ever since the November 2020 election.

What’s next?

  • The Army says it has declared the emergency as the NLD government failed to act on its complaints on voter fraud.
  • The NLD has called for protests against the coup.
  • But Ms. Suu Kyi’s popularity and an energised NLD that was in power for five years would be an impediment for them. And their own unpopularity, a burden.

Global Reaction:

  • The U.S. has reacted harshly.
  • India has expressed deep concerns.
  • It is apparent that the Generals won’t face any heat from Beijing. This means, they could circumvent pressure from the U.S., even economic sanctions, by moving closer to China, which is already making huge investments in Myanmar.

C. GS 3 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

D. GS 4 Related

Nothing here for today!!!

E. Editorials

Category: ECONOMY

1. It’s goodbye to fiscal orthodoxy

Context:

  • Annual budget of India for the year 2021-22.

Background:

  • The Budget for 2021-22 estimates a fiscal deficit of 9.5% of GDP for FY21 and 6.8% for FY22 with a commitment to lower the fiscal deficit to 4.5% of GDP by 2025-26. The Budget has set out a slow fiscal glide path.
  • The Finance Minister has proposed introducing an amendment to the FRBM Act to formalise the new targets.

Details:

Economic orthodoxy:

  • The current administration’s economic policies have mostly been led by economic orthodoxy during the last few years.
    • Mainstream economics refers to the orthodox or neoclassical tradition of economics, in which markets are moved by an invisible hand. The origins of mainstream economics lie in the thinkings of Adam Smith. The current economic orthodoxy is of a free market and unregulated trade.

Mixed approach being employed:

  • The huge deviation from the FRBM targets, though necessitated by the unprecedented pandemic, marks a selective departure from market orthodoxy that has marked the current government’s economic policy. The policy to increase duties on some imports in order to protect and foster domestic industry and the introduction of performance-linked incentives for designated sectors goes counter to market economics.
  • However, the government has adhered to other elements of market orthodoxy, such as privatisation and an increased role for foreign direct investment (FDI).

Arguments in favour:

Need for fiscal stimulus:

  • The pandemic and the consequent lockdowns brought the Indian economy to a standstill. There was loss of jobs, per capita incomes fell, aggregate demand went down and consequently, there was a contraction in the economy.
  • To revive the economic growth in India, it is inevitable that the aggregate demand in the economy needs to be raised. One of the methods often employed to increase demand is through a fiscal stimulus.
  • Fiscal stimulus refers to increasing government consumption. Effectively this means increasing the rate of growth of public debt.

Higher growth fuelled by fiscal stimulus:

  • It is often argued that fiscal stimulus would cause sufficient economic growth to fill that fiscal deficit gap partially or completely. It would help reduce the public debt.
  • The Economic Survey notes that the expansionary fiscal policy will boost growth and cause debt to GDP ratios to be lower, not higher. It also argues that given India’s growth potential, India need not worry about debt sustainability until 2030.

Concept of Interest Rate-Growth Differential (IRGD):

  • If the interest rate paid by the government is less than the growth rate, then the intertemporal budget constraint facing the government no longer binds.”- economist Olivier Blanchard
    • The “intertemporal budget constraint” means that any debt outstanding today must be offset by future primary surpluses. If the Interest Rate-Growth Differential (IRGD), the difference between the interest rate and growth rate, becomes negative, the governments need not worry about deficits since the growth would take care of the interest payment obligations. This would ensure the sustainability of public debts.
  • The Economic Survey argues that in India, the growth rate is higher than the interest rate most of the time. So the conventional restraints on the fiscal policy may not be the right way ahead given the serious contraction of the Indian economy.
  • If India can ensure high growth rates it need not worry about the high debts being accumulated due to the higher fiscal deficits.

Recommendations by the Bretton Woods twins:

  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have been urging a departure from fiscal orthodoxy in the wake of the pandemic. These institutions have been urging countries to spend more by running up deficits even when the debt to GDP ratio is poised to rise to 125% by the end of 2021.

Key concerns:

Moving away from fiscal framework:

  • The budget marks a departure from an adherence to fiscal consolidation as envisaged in the FRBM Act.
    • The FRBM Act envisages a fiscal deficit of 3% of GDP as the eventual target while moving along a fiscal consolidation path. It also envisages reducing revenue deficit to 0%.
  • For well over a decade-and-a-half, India has kept up the pretence of attaining the deficit targets set out in the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act (2003). The current budget seems to move away from that commitment. Indian fiscal policy has adhered to orthodoxy even during downturns.

End of fiscal orthodoxy:

  • The Budget by adhering to large deviations from the fiscal framework of the FRBM Act marks an important departure from one of the key tenets of the Washington Consensus- ‘Macroeconomic stability’.
    • The Washington Consensus refers to a set of free-market economic policies supported by prominent financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the U.S. Treasury. It consists of a set of ten economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the “standard” reform package promoted for developing economies. The framework for market-oriented economics given by the Washington Consensus has dominated policy-making in most parts of the world.
    • ‘Macroeconomic stability’ means that government budgets need to be broadly in balance so that borrowings to finance the deficit are kept to the minimum. ‘Austerity’ policies are recommended under this. The aim is to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts.
  • The lack of fiscal prudence may hamper debt sustainability for India.

Rating downgrade:

  • There is the fear that the rating agencies would downgrade India if total public debt crossed, say, 10%-11% of GDP. The downgrade in ties could dis-incentivize foreign investments into India or could raise the cost of raising capital in the international markets for the governments or Indian private entities.

Threat of inflation:

  • Large fiscal deficit can fuel a rise in inflation.
  • The change in the fiscal consolidation targets will require a change in the inflation target of 4% set for the Reserve Bank of India.

Doubts regarding planned revenue flows:

  • The government is backing on enhanced tax collections and disinvestment to meet the planned fiscal deficits. The sale of public assets has become crucial to a reduction in fiscal deficits in the years ahead. There are concerns being expressed that this might be a high-risk strategy.

For more information on disinvestment proposal refer to CNA dated Feb 2, 2021.

  • The set targets seem challenging given that the tax to GDP ratio has not been rising as expected and there are challenges with the planned disinvestment process.
    • Year on Year revenues from disinvestment have fallen short of targets. The sale of Air India, which was begun in 2018, is still dragging on.
    • Large-scale privatisation is not easily accomplished in India.
  • Selling public assets cheap is politically contentious. There will be allegations of favouring certain industrial houses. Job losses from privatisation are bound to evoke a backlash.
  • Privatisation of banks raises concerns about financial stability.

Reliance on foreign capital:

  • Large-scale privatisation may need substantial FDI inflow. The excessive dependence on foreign capital and excessive foreign presence in the domestic economies may not augur well for the long term interests of the Indian economy.
  • This goes against the tenet of Atmanirbhar Bharat which connotes greater self-reliance and stronger Indian companies.

Conclusion:

  • A departure from fiscal orthodoxy is welcome. But the government needs to think of ways to make it more sustainable.

2. A normal budget for abnormal times

Context:

  • Annual budget of India for the year 2021-22.

Details:

Abnormal times:

  • The Indian economy has suffered an estimated 7.7% contraction in 2020-21.
  • Despite the double-digit growth projection for 2021-22 (Economic Survey projects India’s real GDP growth to be 11% in 2021-22), the growth path would entail a real GDP growth of only 2.4% over the absolute level of 2019-20. This means that the Indian economy would take two years to reach and surpass pre-COVID-19 levels.
  • Many sectors like the travel and tourism sectors, telecom and aviation sectors are under immense stress. A large proportion of the workforce which is predominantly involved in informal employment have suffered job losses and decreases in income levels.

Concerns regarding the budget:

  • The article discusses some of the concerns regarding the annual budget.

Adherence to incrementalism:

  • Given the abnormal times for the economy, which requires non-standard policy responses, the Budget maintains incrementalism and continues with business as usual.

Insufficient public expenditure:

  • There is very little increase in the overall expenditure of the government.
  • The total expenditure for 2020-21 is stated as Rs. 34,50,305 crore in the revised estimates, with capital expenditure at Rs. 4,39,163 crore. The Budget estimates for 2021-22 states the total expenditure at Rs. 34,83,236 crore. This means additional spending of just Rs. 32,931 crore, which is less than even 1% in a year of income contraction for a vast majority of the population.
  • Though capital expenditure has increased by 26% it still accounts for only 15% of the total expenditure.

Neglect of immediate concerns:

  • The enhanced outlays for health sector and infrastructure sector are welcome. However, it should be noted that the declared amounts would be spread over the next six years. Hence the yearly outlays would be much smaller.
  • The immediate outlays are of significance in the present circumstances, when the overall demand in the economy is tepid.

No multiplier effects soon:

  • The budget bets big on growth and employment generation through enhanced capital expenditure via the infrastructure push.
  • This approach in turn bears two risks at the moment.
    • There is a risk of delay in completion, which can lead to cost overruns.
    • The life cycle of the infrastructure projects is long and hence there is the need to have an inventory of funding ready in the pipeline to make the current investments impactful.
  • The immediate multiplier effects to lift the aggregate demand in the economy might not emanate as quickly as expected.

Neglect of critical sectors:

  • Sector-specific targeted proposals, barring production-linked incentives for the industry are few as agriculture and the micro and small industries segment, which shores up demand with their consumption multipliers, seem to have been accorded lower priority.

Threat to exports unaddressed:

  • A lack of concrete policy towards export promotion at a time when the exchange rate is appreciating and there is an increasing tendency of protectionism being observed, might undermine the competitiveness of manufacturing exports from India.

Neglect of unemployment generation:

  • The growth push of the Budget subsumes the welfare implications. Both employment and demand generation remain mostly unaddressed. There is a lack of a concert plan to tackle urban unemployment. This could prove disastrous, given the demographic profile of the country.

Resources and spending:

  • The resource mobilisation for spending would be banking on disinvestment, privatisation and asset monetisation. There are concerns whether this would be successful given the previous attempts at disinvestment.

For more information refer to CNA dated Feb 2, 2021.

Category: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

1. Setback in Myanmar

Context:

  • Military coup in Myanmar.

For more information on this development refer to CNA dated Feb 2, 2021.

India’s stakes:

India’s relationship with Myanmar:

  • India has over the years cultivated a careful balance between nudging along the democratic process by supporting Ms. Suu Kyi, and also closely working with the military to ensure its strategic interests to the North East, and deny China a monopoly on Myanmar’s infrastructure and resources.
    • The visit to Myanmar in October 2020 by Foreign Secretary Harsh Vardhan Shringla and Chief of Army Staff M.M. Naravane shows India’s balanced approach while dealing with the power centres of Myanmar.

For more information, refer to India – Myanmar Ties.

India’s response:

  • India has expressed “deep concern” over developments in Myanmar. India has called for following the rule of law and democratic processes.
  • Despite concerns being expressed, the government seems committed to the policy of non-interference in another state’s internal affairs. This approach is also guided by the national interest.

India’s concerns:

  • The military coup poses a challenge for India’s relations with Myanmar.
  • New Delhi’s immediate reaction, to merely express “deep concern” is unlikely to suffice as a long-term strategy.

Way forward for India:

  • In managing relations with Myanmar, India will need to balance its principles, values, interests and geopolitical realities.
  • India will have to craft its response taking into consideration the new geopolitical realities of the U.S. and China as well as its own standing as a South Asian power, and as a member of the UN Security Council.

Category: INTERNAL SECURITY

1. On the alert, always

Context:

  • Death of Assistant Commandant of the CoBRA (Commando Battalion for Resolute Action) unit, Nikhil P. Bhalerao, in an improvised explosive device (IED) blast in November 2020.
  • The IED went off while an anti-Maoist operation was underway and also injured eight others.

Background:

History of Left-wing extremism:

  • 80 personnel of the Central Reserve Police Force were killed (CRPF) in Chhattisgarh due to land mine blasts in various incidents in 2008.
    • In a move aimed at containing LWE, massive deployment of CRPF personnel was ordered in the left-wing extremism (LWE)-affected States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
    • These newly inducted CRPF battalions underwent 12 weeks of induction training in Chhattisgarh so that they would be familiar with the terrain, the modus operandi of the Maoists, and the precautionary measures to be taken. They were also put through intensive firing practice. Soon the Border Security Force and the Indo Tibetan Border Police joined the CRPF and the State police forces in combating the Maoists.
  • Despite the training and precautionary measures adopted, security forces lost many personnel in 2009 and 2010, with 76 CRPF men killed in an attack in Dantewada in April 2010.
  • The CRPF was able to neutralise close to 200 Maoists between 2009 and 2011. The CRPF slowly gained the upper hand. It has forced the Maoists to be on the run or surrender, which has brought down incidents of violence in the LWE-affected States.

Way forward:

  • Much more needs to be done for left-wing extremism to be completely wiped out.

Improve intelligence system:

  • There is a need to enhance our intelligence system. This will help preempt any attacks on the security forces and help save lives.
  • The intelligence set-up in the LWE-affected States needs to be geared up not only to avert attacks on security forces but also so that they can be on the offensive against the extremists.
  • Efforts are also needed to upgrade technical intelligence to intercept communication among the left-wing extremists.

Employing technology/Novel methods:

  • The use of drones could be used as force multipliers in the battle against the extremists.
  • The extensive use of Belgian Malinois dogs could help in timely detection of IEDs.

Higher budgetary allocation for security:

  • There is a need for timely and adequate allocation for security-related expenditure among the LWE-affected States.

Training the local forces:

  • Even after certain districts are declared free of LWE activities, CAPFs will have to be stationed for some years until the States rely completely on their own Commando outfits like the Greyhounds of Andhra Pradesh and the Jharkhand Jaguars to prevent the re-emergence of Maoism.

F. Tidbits

1. Indian Ocean Region [IOR] Defence Ministers’ conclave

What’s in News?

India will host the defence ministers of the countries of the Indian Ocean Region at a conclave during the “Aero India” in Bengaluru.

  • The conclave is being organised in the backdrop of growing Chinese military assertiveness in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • It is being organised as part of an initiative to promote dialogue in an institutional and cooperative environment that can foster peace, stability and prosperity in the Indian Ocean region.
  • The broad theme of the conclave will be ‘Enhanced Peace, Security and Cooperation in the Indian Ocean’.
  • The conclave would address aspects related to synergising the resources and efforts in the Indian Ocean.

Strategic importance of the Indian Ocean Region:

  • The Indian Ocean, considered the backyard of the Indian Navy, is critical for India’s strategic interests.
  • China has been making concerted efforts to increase its presence in the region.
  • In sync with the national security doctrine, the Indian Navy has significantly increased its deployment of warships, submarines and other assets in the Indian Ocean Region. It is in an attempt to send across a message to China.
  • The IOR Defence Ministers’ conclave is also taking place at a time when Indian and Chinese troops are locked in a bitter standoff in eastern Ladakh.

G. Prelims Facts

1. Alarm over damage to heritage site

What’s in News?

The controversy over the destruction of ancient monuments around the 11th century Lingaraj Temple in Bhubaneswar amid a State-sponsored redevelopment drive, spiralled with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) complaining that irreparable damage had been done to the temple and ancient shrines around it.

Details:

  • The Odisha government’s Ekamra Kshetra beautification project is aimed at creating space adjoining the Lingaraj Temple to accommodate around two lakh devotees expected to visit the temple for the festival of Shivaratri.

Read more on Ekamra Kshetra.

Lingaraj Temple:

  • Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar, Odisha is an 11th-century temple.
  • It is a symbol of Kalinga style architecture.
  • Lingaraj Temple was built by the King Jajati Keshari, who belonged to Soma Vansh.
  • The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1.  Rekhapida, Pidhadeul, Khakra are the features of which of the following temple
 architectures?
  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. West Bengal
  3. Assam
  4. Odisha
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • Three orders of architectural features of the temples of Odisha are:
    • Rekhapida (Rekha Deula): Tall straight building (looking like a shikhara) covering the garbhagriha.
    • Pidhadeul: It is the mandapa, a square building where worshippers are present and also where dancing takes place.
    • Khakra (Khakra Deula): Rectangular building with a truncated pyramid-shaped roof. Temples of Shakti are usually in this type.
  • Location: Ancient Kalinga – that includes modern Puri District including Bhubaneswar (ancient Tribhuvanesvara, Puri and Konark).
  • Odisha temples are a distinct sub-style of the Nagara style called Kalinga Style.
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Ekamra Kshetra:
  1. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  2. It is a series of ancient sandstone temples, heritage ponds and water tanks in Bhubaneshwar in Odisha.
  3. It includes a 13th-century Sun Temple also known as the “Black Pagoda”.

Which of the given statement/s is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Ekamra Kshetra is a series of ancient sandstone temples, heritage ponds and water tanks in Bhubaneshwar in Odisha.
  • It is not a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has been listed as a tentative site in the UNESCO World Heritage list.
  • The 13th-century Sun Temple also known as the “Black Pagoda” which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site is located in Puri, Odisha.
Q3. Consider the following statements with respect ATMA Scheme:
  1. “Support to State Extension Programs for Extension Reforms” is popularly known as ATMA Scheme.
  2. It is a Centrally sponsored scheme.
  3. The scheme promotes decentralized farmer-friendly extension system in the country.

Which of the given statement/s is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. None of the above
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

All the given statements are correct.

  • ATMA stands for Agricultural Technology Management Agency.
  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Support to State Extension Programs for Extension Reforms”, popularly known as ATMA Scheme, is under implementation since 2005.
  • The scheme promotes decentralized farmer-friendly extension system in the country.
  • Under the scheme, grants-in-aid are released to the State Governments with an objective to support State Government’s efforts to make available the latest agricultural technologies and good agricultural practices in different thematic areas of agriculture and allied areas to farmers.
  • Scheme objective: The scheme aims at making extension system farmer-driven and farmer accountable by way of new institutional arrangements for technology dissemination in the form of an Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) at the district level to operationalize the extension reforms.
Q4. Consider the following statements:
  1. Chauri Chaura incident led Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement from Bardoli in February 1922.
  2. Subhash Chandra Bose supported Gandhi’s decision to stop the Non-Cooperation Movement after Chauri Chaura.
  3. Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das were against the calling off of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Which of the given statement/s is/are INCORRECT?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • Chauri Chaura incident led Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM) from Bardoli in February 1922.
  • Many Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das were against the calling off of the movement as they felt that success was being gained in the country.
  • When Gandhi stopped the Non-Cooperation movement (NCM) after the Chauri-Chaura incident, Bose called it a “National Calamity”. H was against Gandhiji’s decision.

Read more on the Chauri Chaura incident.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. The Budget by adhering to large deviations from the fiscal framework of the FRBM Act, 2003 marks a departure from fiscal orthodoxy. Discuss the arguments both in favour of and against this proposal. (15 marks, 250 words) [GS-3, Economy]
  2. Discuss the relevance of SAMADHAN strategy propounded by the Home Ministry in the fight against Left Wing Extremism. (10 marks, 150 words) [GS-3, Internal Security]

Read the previous CNA here.

03 Feb 2021 CNA:- Download PDF Here

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